Guide to the National Socialism Collection
1920-1992
(bulk 1933-1945)

AR 119

Processed by Leanora Lange

Leo Baeck Institute

Center for Jewish History

15 West 16th Street

New York, N.Y. 10011

Phone: (212) 744-6400

Fax: (212) 988-1305

Email: http://www.lbi.org/ask

URL: http://www.lbi.org

© 2013  Leo Baeck Institute
Electronic finding aid was encoded in EAD 2002 by Leanora Lange in March 2013. Description is in English.

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Leo Baeck Institute
Title: National Socialism Collection
Dates:1920-1992
Dates:bulk 1933-1945
Abstract: This is a constructed collection of materials on National Socialism in Germany made from several individual items and smaller collections pulled together over more than two decades. The bulk of the collection stems from 1933-1945. Materials include clippings, correspondence, government and police records, memoranda, reports, minutes, awards, personal identification papers, transcripts of speeches and a radio broadcast, Jewish stars, songs, poems, photographs, manuscripts, teaching materials, and ephemera.
Languages: The collection is in German and English with a few items in French and Hebrew.
Quantity: 1 linear foot (2 boxes + 10 oversized folders)
Identification: AR 119
Repository: Leo Baeck Institute
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Historical Note

The National Socialist German Workers’ Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP), known in English as the Nazi Party, was an extreme right-wing party led by Adolf Hitler from 1919-1945.

After Germany’s defeat in World War I, economic hardship and political instability provided favorable conditions for the rise of Hitler and the Nazis, who promised to restore pride to the German nation.

Hitler became Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. After fire was set to the Reichstag on February 28, 1933, a state of emergency was declared which gave the executive branch the power to bypass the parliament. Over the next few years, the Nazi government took control of major legal, cultural, and educational institutions in the process of Gleichschaltung or "coordination." During this time, the civil rights of Jews and other non-Aryans were increasingly limited as they were excluded from intellectual, professional, cultural, and everyday life.

In March of 1938, Germany took over Austria. In the fall of 1938, Hitler threatened war unless he was allowed to annex Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia) without intervention from other powers, and, in the Munich Agreement, the leaders of Britain, France, and Italy acquiesced.

The night of November 9, 1938, known as Kristallnacht or the Night of Broken Glass, saw the widespread destruction of synagogues as well as Jewish homes and businesses.

World War II officially started when Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Jewish ghettos were created in Poland, and Jews from all parts of the Reich were sent to them. Einsatzgruppen were sent out to commit mass murders of Jews and other groups considered undesirable by the Nazi regime, including persons with disabilities, the Roma people, homosexuals, and communists.

The Wannsee Conference was held in January of 1942 to discuss the Final Solution to the “Jewish question” and agree upon plans for the deportation and extermination of the Jews of Europe. Death camps went into operation shortly thereafter and approximately six million Jews were killed.

Hitler’s regime collapsed in the spring of 1945. Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945 during the Battle of Berlin, and German forces surrendered unconditionally to the Allies in early May 1945.

References

Hildebrand, Klaus. Das Dritte Reich. 2nd Edition. Munich, Vienna: R. Oldenbourg, 1980.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Introduction to the Holocaust." Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved 4 March 2013 from http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005143.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Third Reich: An Overview." Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved 4 March 2013 from http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005141.

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Scope and Content Note

This is a constructed collection made from several individual items and smaller collections pulled together over more than two decades.

The bulk of the collection stems from 1933-1945, and the materials include clippings, correspondence, government and police records, memoranda, reports, minutes, awards, personal identification papers, transcripts of speeches and a radio broadcast, Jewish stars, songs, poems, photographs, manuscripts, teaching materials, and ephemera.

Highlights of the collection include original signatures of Adolf Hitler and Heinrich Himmler, fabric for Jewish stars, complete issues and clippings from Der Stürmer, and the front page of the Ostasiatischer Lloyd, a National-Socialist newspaper in Shanghai, lamenting the death of Hitler.

Also included are published and unpublished essays on National Socialism written after WWII, widely representing Vergangenheitsbewältiging, the coming to terms with this chapter of history.

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Arrangement

The collection is arranged in two series according to the date of creation of the materials.

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Access and Use

Access Restrictions

This collection is open to researchers.

Access Information

Readers may access the collection by visiting the Lillian Goldman Reading Room at the Center for Jewish History. We recommend reserving the collection in advance; please visit the LBI Online Catalog and click on the "Request" button.

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Access Points

Click on a subject to search that term in the Center's catalog. Return to the Top of Page

Related Material

The Leo Baeck Institute Archives and Library hold extensive materials related to the National Socialist era and the Holocaust. Other partners at the Center for Jewish History also hold a great deal of materials on these topics.

Other archival materials related to National Socialism can be found at the National Archives (e.g. the Collection of World War II War Crimes Records, 1933-1949), the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and Stanford University’s Hoover Institution Library and Archives, among many other institutions.

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Separated Material

All correspondence between former LBI staff and donors formerly held with the materials donated was removed to donor files. Where contents of these letters added context to the materials donated, the original letters were kept in the folders and copies were removed to donor files.

A photocopy of a published version of the “Richtlinien für den Sportbetrieb von Juden und sonstigen Nichariern” was removed. The original can be viewed online as part of the Digitales Archiv Marburg / Hessisches Staatsarchiv Marburg.

Copies of the following books and manuscripts were removed from the collection and can be accessed via the LBI Library or LBI Archives Microfilm Collection.

Clippings from the following newspapers were removed: Jüdische Rundschau (1933: issues 27, 45-46, 53, 60, 63; 1937: issue 90) and Der Israelit (January 16, 1930). These items can be viewed online at Compact Memory: Internetarchiv jüdischer Periodika.

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Digitization Note

This collection was digitized in its entirety. Digital images from box 2 folder 22 and the oversized clippings from 1947-1992 are available onsite only.

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Preferred Citation

Published citations should take the following form:

Identification of item, date (if known); National Socialism Collection; AR 119; box number; folder number; Leo Baeck Institute.

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Processing Information

The current finding aid was created out of two constructed collections, the National Socialism Collection (AR 119) and the 1933-1945 section of the Jews in Germany Collection (AR 1441), each of which had been put together from individual items and smaller collections over the course of more than two decades. Although the items were taken out of their original order and context, their informational content and uniqueness still hold value for potential research. They have thus been kept in this constructed collection in the interest of making them discoverable and accessible.

During processing in 2013, materials were flattened, duplicates were removed, fragile items were placed in Mylar sleeves, and materials were placed in acid-free archival folders where necessary. Physically separated materials such as photographs and oversized materials have been incorporated intellectually into this finding aid.

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Other Finding Aid

An online finding aid for the oversized materials in this collection was created in 2009. Since these oversized materials were incorporated intellectually into the current finding aid, the 2009 finding aid has been replaced by this one.

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Container List

 

Series I: Papers from the National Socialist era, undated, 1920-1945

In German and English with a few items in French and Hebrew.
0.75 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Materials were separated by topic or document type and organized in rough chronological order.

Scope and Content:

This series contains materials created during the time that the NSDAP, the original Nazi party, existed. Subseries I holds all materials except for clippings, while Subseries II contains only clippings from this period. Because of the mixed provenance and limited extent of these materials, they represent only small traces of the larger themes to which they relate. These themes include, among others, the history of the Nazi party, regulations against Jews, persecution of Jews, Nazi regulations on books, authors, intellectuals, doctors, and lawyers, Kristallnacht, the Wannsee Conference, and the deportation of Jews.

Subseries 1: Papers, undated, 1920-1945

In German and English with a few items in French and Hebrew.
0.5 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Materials were separated by topic or document type and organized in rough chronological order.

Scope and Content:

This subseries contains correspondence, government and police records, memoranda, reports, minutes, awards, personal identification papers, transcripts of speeches and a radio broadcast, Jewish stars, songs, poems, photographs, and ephemera created during the rule of the Nazi regime.

The policy papers and laws of the NSDAP include the 1928 platform of NSDAP, policies on German colonies, a list of the dates for the introduction of the yellow stars in the various countries, regulations on Jewish names, removal of the right of Jews to vote, and regulations on the military duties of boys of partial Jewish heritage.

The loose photographs depict Heinrich Goering at various events, a burning synagogue, and a Jewish woman named Dora Franken in front of a swimming pool banning Jews and dogs. The photo album of the Nazi Party Treasurer Franz Xaver Schwarz contains photographs of Nazi Party members, including rare photographs of Hitler at family celebrations.

Regulations against doctors and dentists include a catalog of non-Aryan and enemy doctors and dentists and prescription pads of doctors only allowed to treat Jewish patients. The postcards and stamps include stamps of Hitler sent on Hitler’s birthday.

The following last names are mentioned in the court cases against Jews: Birnbaum, Fraenkel, Gutmann, Hirsch, Joachim, Loewy, Meyer, Rotholz, and Salinger.

The folder of relief efforts and support of Jews in Germany includes a letter with the signature of Leo Baeck, Otto Hirsch, Paul Eppstein, Julius Seligsohn, and Franz Lyon. Personal accounts of Nazi deportation mention the Freudenstein, Sichel, and Ullmann families.

BoxFolderTitleDate
1 1 Hans Knodn: anti-Semitic writings and police records 1920
1 2 Policy papers and laws of the NSDAP 1928, 1936-1945
1 3 Photo album of Nazi Party Treasurer Franz Xaver Schwarz circa 1930s
1 4 Les documents fausses de M. Göring ("False documents of Mr. Göring") 1933
1 5 Jewish-Christian divide: correspondence among religious leaders and ephemera undated, 1933
1 6 Regulations against Jewish lawyers 1933-1937
1 7 Nazi control of Jewish organizations and businesses 1933-1942
1 8 Loose photographs circa 1933-1945
BoxFolderTitleDate
LBI Photograph Collection Photographs of Goering, Hitler, Kristallnacht, anti-Semitism, and prisons circa 1933-1945
BoxFolderTitleDate
1 9 Pro-Nazi ephemera circa 1933-1945
1 10 Anti-Semitic ephemera undated, circa 1933-1945
1 11 Anti-Semitic songs and an anti-Nazi poem undated, circa 1933-1945
1 12 Regulations against doctors and dentists undated, 1934
1 13 Awards of the Cross of Honor for widows of World War I 1935
BoxFolderTitleDate
OS 59 Poster for Josef S. Lengyel's February 27, 1935 performance of "Des Juden Sang" 1935 February
BoxFolderTitleDate
1 14 Anti-Semitic speeches and internal publications undated, 1935-1941
1 15 "Der Spannkreis: Gefahren und Auswirkungen" Gestapo report on the Othmar Spann circle 1936 May
1 16 Relief efforts and support of Jews in Germany undated, 1936-1940
1 17 NSDAP membership and identification cards 1937-1939
1 18 Regulations against Jews participating in business, banking, and the stock exchange 1938
1 19 Passports and identification cards of Jews 1938-1939
1 20 Court cases against Jews 1938-1943
1 21 Nazi efforts to catalog Jewish property 1938-1945
1 22 Postcards and stamps 1938-1945
1 23 Exclusion of Jews from everyday activities 1939
1 24 Personal correspondence about Kristallnacht 1939
1 25 1939 census 1939
1 26 Correspondence from the NSDAP archives concerning banned books, the appropriation of Jewish archival materials, and the organization of NSDAP archives 1939-1944
1 27 Jewish star circa 1939-1945
BoxFolderTitleDate
ROS 11 Fabric with Jewish stars (Judensterne) circa 1939-1945
BoxFolderTitleDate
1 28 Nazi regulations against Jews in arts and culture undated, 1940-1941
BoxFolderTitleDate
ROS 11 Certificate of Award of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Hitler's signature 1941
BoxFolderTitleDate
1 29 Nazi deportation of Jews, personal accounts 1941-1942
1 30 Wannsee Conference minutes and Nazi plans to deport and exterminate Jews of Europe 1942, 1947
1 31 International press: Catalog cards, press pass, and first broadcast of Jewish religious service from Nazi Germany 1944
1 32 Letter concerning the ethnicity of a "pure German" mother and her "mixed" children signed by Heinrich Himmler 1944
1 33 Report on a discussion between Heinrich Himmler and representatives of the World Jewish Congress regarding the freeing of prisoners in concentration camps 1945
BoxFolderTitleDate
ROS 11 Letter from Captain Henry Nussbaum to Mrs. A. Victor 1945

Subseries 2: Clippings, undated, 1933-1945

In German and English.
0.25 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Materials were arranged chronologically.

Scope and Content:

This subseries contains newspaper clippings that stem from the Nazi period from 1933-1945. The newspaper clippings are from the following newspapers: Der Stürmer, Neues Wiener Journal, Dresdener Neuste Nachrichten, Vossische Zeitung, Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Juedische Schule (supplement to the Jüdische Rundschau), Berliner Tageblatt, Neue Zuericher Zeitung, National Zeitung (Basel), Basler Nachrichten, General Anzeiger (Dortmund), Rhein- und Ruehrzeitung, Frankfurter Zeitung, Israelitisches Familienblatt, Fränkische Tageszeitung, and Völkischer Beobachter. It is not clear from which newspaper some of the smaller clippings come.

Both notebooks of clippings hold the name L. Spitzer of Buenos Aires, Argentina on their covers and contain clippings mainly from the Frankfurter Zeitung.

A particular highlight of this subseries is the May 3, 1945 front page of the Ostasiatischer Lloyd, a National Socialist newspaper printed in Shanghai, portraying Hitler's death as heroic and introducing the new Führer Karl Dönitz just days before the surrender of the Nazi forces and the end of the war in Europe.

The clippings in this subseries cover the following topics: the boycott of Jewish businesses, book bans, Hindenburg’s funeral, intellectual culture and the arts during Nazi times, Nazi-endorsed education, the opening of the Reich Institute for History of New Germany (Reichsinstitut für Geschichte des neuen Deutschlands), the cataloging of Jewish property, limitations set on the rights of Jews to participate in everyday activities, reports on the resignations and forced leaves of absence of university professors, and regulations limiting or forbidding Jewish doctors, students, pupils, authors, and lawyers, and Hitler’s death.

Many of the oversized clippings are extremely fragile, and a few have already lost some content.

BoxFolderTitleDate
2 14 Clippings undated
2 15 Notebook of clippings 1933
2 16 Clippings 1933-1934
BoxFolderTitleDate
OS 51 Oversized clippings 1933-1934
BoxFolderTitleDate
2 17 Notebook of clippings 1934-1935
BoxFolderTitleDate
OS 51 Der Stürmer: clippings and whole issues 1934-1942
BoxFolderTitleDate
2 18 Clippings 1935-1936
BoxFolderTitleDate
OS 51 Oversized clippings 1935-1940
BoxFolderTitleDate
2 19 Clippings 1937-1938
BoxFolderTitleDate
OS 51 Neues Wiener Journal: whole issues 1938 November 7-12, 1939 August 12
BoxFolderTitleDate
2 20 Clippings 1939-1945
BoxFolderTitleDate
OS 51 Oversized clippings 1945
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Series II: Post-World War II papers on National Socialism, undated, 1945-1992

In German and English.
0.25 linear feet.
Arrangement:

Materials were separated by topic or document type and organized in rough chronological order.

Scope and Content:

This series contains materials created after the end of the World War II in Europe in May of 1945. The materials either reveal further information about National Socialism or reflect upon the period from 1933-1945. Subseries I contains all materials except clippings while Subseries II contains only clippings. Because of the mixed provenance and limited extent of these materials, they represent only small traces of the larger themes to which they relate. These themes include memorials of the Holocaust, exhibitions on National Socialist history including the Wannsee Conference, personal reflections, manuscripts on the history of National Socialism, Jewish resistance, and the prosecution of Nazi war criminals.

Subseries 1: Papers, undated, 1946-1991

In German and English.
13 folders.
Arrangement:

Materials were separated by topic and organized in rough chronological order.

Scope and Content:

This series contains materials created after the collapse of Hitler’s Third Reich that report or reflect upon the Nazi period from 1933-1945. Included are photographs of Holocaust victims, personal reflections, correspondence, manuscripts, speeches, and teaching materials. Topics covered include remembrances of individual victims of Nazi persecution, exhibitions and memorials about the Holocaust, the destruction of synagogues, Nazi control of Jewish businesses, organizations, and activities in various professions, and Nazi-controlled education in Cologne.

The correspondence about Jews in Germany during the Nazi period from 1933-1945 discusses the deportation of Jews to Poland, Jewish POWs from Allied armies in Germany, the extent of awareness in London of the condition of German Jews, a register of kin (Sippenregister) found in East Germany, the Nazi control and boycott of Jewish businesses, memories of Kristallnacht, and a personal account about a Nazi who disobeyed orders and helped a Jewish family escape.

BoxFolderTitleDate
LBI Photograph Collection Photo albums "Den Unvergessenen" undated, after 1945
BoxFolderTitleDate
2 1 Index to the photoalbums "Den Unvergessenen" undated, after 1945
2 2 Personal reflection on the Lodz ghetto: "Tragoedie von 12.000 deutschen Juden" undated, after 1945
2 3 Jewish doctors and Jewish health after WWII 1946
2 4 Victims of Nazi persecution: individual accounts and papers on missing persons 1946, 1958, 1974
2 5 Report of the archives of the former Reich Ministry of Finance: "The measures taken against the Jewish population and their institutions since 1933" 1949 February 2
2 6 Manuscripts concerning Jewish activities in publishing, cultural life, and seafaring during 1933-1945 1951-1959
2 7 Memorial books depicting destroyed and neglected synagogues undated, 1959-1988
2 8 Manuscripts about Jewish resistance and responsibility, responding to Hannah Arendt 1963
2 9 Correspondence about Jews in Germany during the Nazi period 1933-1945 1963-1988
2 10 Nazi control of Jewish businesses 1970-1978
2 11 Correspondence of the Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz concerning exhibitions covering the Nazi period 1983-1985
2 12 Speech: "Die Vertreibung der jüdischen Juristen" by Gerhard Jungfer 1988 November 30
2 13 Teaching materials on the Nazi take-over and consolidation of power in Cologne schools 1991

Subseries 2: Clippings, undated, 1945-1992

In German and English.
2 folders + 1 oversized folder.
Arrangement:

Materials were arranged chronologically.

Scope and Content:

This subseries contains newspaper clippings from after 1945 that reflect upon the Nazi period from 1933-1945. The newspaper clippings are from the following newspapers: Aufbau, Chicago Jewish Sentinel, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, The New York Review, Der Spiegel, Süddeutsche Zeitung, and Die Welt. It is not clear from which newspaper some of the smaller clippings come.

These clippings cover the following topics: controversies concerning the history of the Nazi period, reviews of books and films about the period, criticisms of businesses and individuals who profited from or participated in Nazi practices, restitution and indemnification claims, memorials of the Holocaust and the Wannsee Conference, Nazi documents concerning Kristallnacht, and personal memories of the Nazi period.

The book of clippings was assembled and annotated by an unknown collector who seems to have been in Berlin and in Bavaria in the post-war period. These clippings cover war crimes tribunals in Nuremberg, the Bergen-Belsen trials, and other press coverage shortly after the war.

BoxFolderTitleDate
2 21 Book of clippings undated, 1945-1947
BoxFolderTitleDate
OS 51 Oversized clippings 1947-1992
BoxFolderTitleDate
2 22 Clippings 1957-1992
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