Guide to the Papers of Simon Dubnow (1860-1941)
1632-1938
(bulk 1700-1900)

RG 87

Originally processed by Chaim Borodiansky in the 1930s. Yiddish/Russian finding aid translated into English by Shaindel Fogelman. Edited by Marek Web and Chava Lapin in 2008. Finding aid encoded by Rachel Harrison and Shayna Goodman in 2011. Materials prepared for digitization by Jessica Podhorcer in 2019.

YIVO Institute for Jewish Research

Center for Jewish History

15 West 16th Street

New York, NY 10011

Phone: (212) 246-6080

Fax: (212) 292-1892

Email: archives@yivo.cjh.org

URL: http://www.yivoinstitute.org

©2019 YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. All rights reserved.
Center for Jewish History, Publisher.
Electronic finding aid was encoded in EAD 2002 by Rachel S. Harrison in November 2011. Description is in English.

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Simon Dubnow
Title: Papers of Simon Dubnow (1860-1941)
Dates:1632-1938
Dates:bulk 1700-1900
Abstract: This collection consists of materials gathered by Simon Dubnow, an influential political thinker, educator, writer, activist, and preeminent historian of Russian Jewry. The materials reflect central subjects of his historical research, such as communal organization, persecutions, and Hasidism, as well as pressing issues of his time, most significantly pogroms and the question of Jewish emancipation. Much of the material comprises information meticulously copied and sent to Dubnow by individuals throughout the Russian Empire for the purpose of aiding his research. The collection demonstrates Dubnow's importance in helping to establish the idea of Jewish ethnographic history.
Languages: The collection is in Yiddish and Hebrew, with some Polish, Russian and German, and a small amount of Aramaic, Latin and French.
Quantity: 3.2 linear feet
Identification: RG 87
Repository: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research
Return to the Top of Page

Biographical Note

Simon Meyerovich Dubnow was born on September 10, 1860 in Mstislavl, Russia (now Belarus). He was raised in a large, religious family in the home of his grandfather Bentsion, a respected rabbinic scholar and misnaged who provided Dubnow with a traditional Jewish education. From a young age he was drawn to historical and heretical works, acquainting himself with Hebrew literature, maskilic newspapers and journals, Russian, German, English, mathematics, among other subjects. Largely self-taught and unable to obtain a high school diploma (and thence attend university), in 1880 he moved illegally to St. Petersburg to pursue historical research and journalism. There he spent his days studying in libraries and writing essays, articles, and book reviews for Russian Jewish periodicals such as Rasvet (Dawn), Voskhod (Sunrise), and Russkii evrei (Russian Jews).

Unable to secure a residency permit in St. Petersburg, in 1884 the now married Dubnow was forced to return to Mstislavl, which remained his primary residence until the family moved to Odessa in 1890. Though limited compared to St. Petersburg, Odessa was a hub for Jewish intellectuals and literary figures who shared an ideology of cultural Jewish nationalism.

Dubnow’s first published original historical work, a series on the origins of Hasidism, appeared in Voskhod between 1888 and 1893. In 1891, frustrated by the lack of organized support and research materials available for scholars of Eastern European Jewry, Dubnow published an essay "On the Study of the History of Russian Jews and the Establishment of a Russian Jewish Historical Society," in Voskhod, in which he issued a call for the collection of Russian Jewish historical sources. In 1892 Dubnow rewrote his essay in Hebrew and published it under the title "Let Us Search and Study". The Hebrew article was reprinted as a separate brochure and distributed free of charge throughout the Pale. Between 1893 and 1895 Dubnow received hundreds of historical documents, including minute books of the local and regional communities (pinkasim), community registers, memorabilia, letters, manuscripts, legends and folklore materials, rare books, government documents, inscriptions, martyrological texts, and Hasidic literature. In addition, Dubnow's correspondents sent him extensive bibliographic and historical notes on sources that they had uncovered.

In Odessa Dubnow evolved his historiographical and political philosophies, which he grounded in a concept he termed “historism” – the history of Eastern European Jewry serves as the spiritual source supporting national identity. His most significant publications during this period include the 1893 essay “What is Jewish History? An Attempt at a Philosophic Analysis” in Voskhod, his 1896 textbook Vseobshchaia istoriia evreev (A General History of the Jews), and a series of essays in Voskhod between 1897 and 1907 explicating his ideology of Jewish nationalism known as autonomism.

Dubnow did not limit his activity to writing. In 1901-1903 he was involved in a “kulturkampf” among members of the Odessa OPE (Society for the Promotion of Culture among the Jews of Russia, Obshchestva dlia Rasprostraneniia Prosveshcheniia Mezhdu Evreiami v Rossii) over how much Jewish content to include in schools subsidized by OPE. In 1906, after three years spent in Vilna, Dubnow moved again to St. Petersburg, where he taught Jewish history and contributed to the founding of the Folkspartey and the Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Society. He served as editor of Evreiskaia starina (Jewish Past) from 1909 to 1918, and in 1920 participated in a committee organized by the Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Society to review and publish materials related to blood libels.

Dubnow was given permission to leave Russia in 1922. He emigrated first to Kovno, Lithuania and then settled in Berlin. There he lived in relative seclusion while working on the ten volume World History of the Jewish People, first published in German translation in 1925-1929. During this period, he also contributed his venerable stature and experience to the Historical Section of YIVO (Yiddish Scientific Institute, Yidisher visnshaftlikhe institut), printed an edition of the Pinkas Medinat Lita (Records of the Lithuanian Council), and published his three volume history of Hasidism in Yiddish, Hebrew, and German.

In 1933 Dubnow moved from Berlin to Riga, leaving his archive with Elias Tcherikower to be delivered to YIVO. In Riga he wrote his autobiography Kniga zhizni: Vospominaniia i razmyshleniia; Materiali dlia istorii moevo vremeni (Book of Life: Reminiscences and Reflections; Material for the History of My Times) published in 3 volumes in 1934-1940. After Nazi troops invaded Riga in July 1941 Dubnow was forced from his home into the Riga Ghetto, where he was murdered on December 8.

Based upon: Seltzer, Robert M. "Dubnow, Simon." YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. New York: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, 2010, pp. 432-434.

Groberg, K. (1993). The Life and Influence of Simon Dubnov (1860-1941): An Appreciation. Modern Judaism, 13(1), 71-93.

For further reading, see the excellent bibliography compiled by Simon Rabinovitch.

Return to the Top of Page

Scope and Content Note

The core of the materials in this collection are the hundreds documents Dubnow received from communities in Russia and Poland in response to his 1891 article, "Ob Izuchenii Istorii Russkikh Evreev" (On the Study of the History of Russian Jews), which called for the collection of source materials to enable research on the history of Russian Jewry. In addition to a modest quantity of original items, Dubnow received information meticulously copied for the purpose of aiding his research. Following this initial burst Dubnow continued to gradually build his archive for most of the rest of his life. Important later additions pertain to Dubnow's subsequent research projects, including material related to Hasidism and historical pogroms. A large group of documents was added to the collection after the 1917 revolution. At that time, Dubnow was able to make use of the former imperial archives in St. Petersburg that previously had been closed to him, and he made copies of selected documents about Russian-Jewish relations, blood libels, and anti-Jewish pogroms.

These materials include originals and copies of community registers (pinkasim) from Sloboda (Novy Mstislavl), Pińczów, Piotrowice, Bikhov (Bychów), Tykocin, Zabłudów, Biržai, Dubno, Lublin, Mezritch (Międzyrzec), and Liozna, as well as portions copied from the pinkasim of the Council of Four Lands (Vaad Arbah Aratsot) and the Council of Lithuania (Vaad Medinat Lite). Other historical documents relate to restrictions and privileges issued by governments to Jewish populations, to blood libel trials and to Gezerot Takh-ve-Tat (the Chmielnicki massacres of 1648-1649). In addition, there are documents from the Russian Justice Ministry and Senate and materials on pogroms in the Russian empire, including pogroms in Kishinev (1903), Homel (1903) and Bialystok (1906). There are also materials on Hasidism, such as extracts of books, correspondence and documents by and about Hasidic rabbis and about Hasidism.

The collection also contains two caches of family papers and records: the papers of Simon Dubnow’s grandfather Rabbi Bentsion Dubnow, and a chain of title for a house in Vilna beginning in 1643. In addition to research material, the collection contains a small amount of correspondence, reports, newspaper clippings, and other materials related to contemporary events and concerns, as well as books from Dubnow’s library, and miscellaneous notes and writings.

Finally, while living in Berlin, Dubnow added a large collection of his correspondence with scholars and zamlers, spanning some forty-five years. Correspondents include Simha Assaf, Mathias Bersohn, Martin Buber, Joseph Chazanowicz, Bernhard Friedberg, Israel Friedlander, Bernard Naftali Friedman, Yuli Gessen, Shmuel Abba Horodezky, Moses Schorr, Abraham Schwadron (Avraham Sharon), Pinhas Turberg, and Maxim Vinaver.

Return to the Top of Page

Arrangement

The collection is arranged in series, according to Dubnow's own classification: Pinkasim, Civilia, Communalia, Pogrom Materials, Miscellaneous, Literaria, and Correspondence. The first three series have been formed entirely from documents collected in the 1890s, while the other series contain later materials as well.

The documents have been paginated. The Simon Dubnow Papers, RG 87, while being a separate record group, has been cataloged as part of the Tcherikower Archive, RG 80-89, along with several other collections belonging to that section in the YIVO Archives. Therefore, the folder and page numbering of this record group begins at the point where the preceding collection's numbering ends. Thus the first folder in the RG 87 bears number 913 and the first page is number 72795.

The first two folders, number 913 and 914, contain the Yiddish finding aids compiled by Elias Tcherikower, Chaim Borodiansky and Zosa Szajkowski. The current English-language inventory is an edited translation of Borodiansky and Szajkowski's lists. Every attempt has been made to standardize the translations and transliterations of individual and place names. Alternate geographical names are in parentheses.

Each document is identified by its folder number, e.g. 915, and page numbers, e.g. 73067-73100. In addition, when available, the old document numbers used by Dubnow are inserted alongside the present numbers in brackets, e.g. I.1.

Return to the Top of Page

Access and Use

Access Restrictions

Collection closed for digitization.

Use Restrictions

Permission to publish part or parts of the collection must be obtained from the YIVO Archives. For more information, contact:
YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street, New York, NY 10011
email: archives@yivo.cjh.org

Return to the Top of Page

Related Material

The Simon Dubnow Papers are part of the Elias Tcherikower Archive, RG 80-89, with which they share a provenance. The YIVO Archives and Library also ccntain several books by and about Dubnow, including his autobiography and historical works, as well as several of the pinkasim that Dubnow collected. His correspondence is also represented in several archival collections, including David Mowshowitch, Abraham Liessin, Jacob Lestchinsky, Joseph Opatoshu, and Elias Tcherikower's personal collection.

Return to the Top of Page

Separated Material

Over the decades some personal documents of Dubnow, as well as invitations, exhibition materials, and photocopies of outgoing Dubnow correspondence were appended to the Simon Dubnow Papers. These items have been removed from RG 87 and created as a separate record group.

Return to the Top of Page

Other Finding Aids

The original Yiddish finding aid can be found at http://digital.cjh.org/webclient/DeliveryManager?pid=1403160

Return to the Top of Page

Microfilm

The collection is on 8 reels of microfilm (MK 470.73 - 470.80)

Return to the Top of Page

Preferred Citation

Published citations should take the following form:

Identification of item, date (if known); Papers of Simon Dubnow; RG 87; box number; folder number; YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.

Return to the Top of Page

Custodial Information

As Dubnow moved from Odessa to Vilna, St. Petersburg, Kovno, Danzig, and Berlin, he took along the entire archive. Faced with the necessity of yet another move in 1933, this time from Berlin to Riga, Latvia, he decided to donate the larger part of the archive to the YIVO Institute in Vilna. Dubnow resolved to take along with him to Riga the smaller part of his archive, which consisted of documents he needed for writing his memoirs and excerpts of the series which he named "Hasidiana," which included documents related to the history of the Hasidic movement.

In the end, the records destined for the YIVO never reached Vilna. In Berlin, Dubnow left the YIVO collection in the care of his disciple and compatriot Elias Tcherikower. Tcherikower, who was a member of the YIVO Executive Committee and the chairman of YIVO's Historical Section, had been entrusted with many other collections destined for the YIVO in Vilna. However Tcherikower was soon forced to move these collections (subsequently known as the Archive of the YIVO Historical Section, or the Elias Tcherkower Archive) to Paris in a hurry. During World War II, the archive was kept in hiding in southern France. Finally, in 1944, the Tcherikower Archive, including the Dubnow Papers, was recovered intact and shipped to the YIVO in New York. The part which Dubnow took to Riga was confiscated by the Germans at the time of Dubnow's arrest. At least a fraction of the Riga consignment, about 3 linear feet of papers, was recovered from Germany after the war and placed in the Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People in Jerusalem. However, the fate of the "Hasidiana" series remains unknown, as does the fate of Dubnow's library, which he had bequeathed to YIVO as well. According to Tcherikower's list, forty-two of the total forty-five Hasidiana documents remained in Dubnow's possession. Readers of Dubnow's History of Hasidism will find many of those documents incorporated in his text.

Return to the Top of Page

Processing information

Dubnow organized the papers himself before giving the collection to Elias Tcherikower. While still in Berlin, Tcherikower drafted a preliminary listing of the papers destined for YIVO, including the Hasidiana that Dubnow wished to keep at the time. At some point while the materials were still in Berlin the historian Chaim Borodiansky (later known as Chaim Bar-Dayan) compiled an inventory of the Dubnow papers, which superseded the Tcherikower list. These lists describe materials in folders 913-995. YIVO archivists in New York continued to add items as they were recovered and identified, creating folders 996-1017. Around 1972, YIVO archivist Zosa Szajkowski added a listing of Dubnow's correspondence. This combined inventory serves today as the original Yiddish finding aid to the collection (f. 913, 914). The English-language finding aid is an edited translation of the Yiddish.

The English finding aid was created by Marek Web and Chava Lapin in 2008. Additional processing completed in November 2011. In 2019 the collection received additional processing as part of the Edward Blank YIVO Vilna Online Collections project. At that time some folders were physically divided into subfolders and given alphanumeric identities, e.g. 935a-935g, to better reflect the original inventory. Folder descriptions and dates were also improved.

Return to the Top of Page

Access Points

Click on a subject to search that term in the Center's catalog. Return to the Top of Page

Container List

 

Series I: Pinkasim (communal registers), 1632-1899, 1933

21 folders
Scope and Content:

The communal registers were Dubnow's most prized possessions. In his essay "On the Study of History," Dubnow singles out pinkasim as being the most important documents for the history of Jewish communal relations. Even after many years of diligent searching, he could gather no more than seven originals and about a dozen copies. These include the pinkasim of the communities of Mstislavl (1702-1823), Novy Mstislavl (Sloboda, 1760-1795), Piotrowice (1726-1809), Pińczów (1632-1740), Bychów (1686-1869), Kedainiai (1806-1819), Tykocin (1589-1816), Biržai (1784-1836), Dubno (1670-1671), Zabłudów (1650-1827), Lublin (1685-1695, 1777-1785), parts of the Pinkas Medinat Lita (Pinkas of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania), and the six extant pages of the Pinkas Va'ad Arba Aratsot (Pinkas of the Council of the Four Lands). In addition, there are excerpts from many pinkasim that for various reasons were not copied in full.

Also included in this series are the collection inventories drafted by Dubnow, Elias Tcherikower, and Chaim Borodiansky. Not all of the items in Dubnow and Tcherikower's lists made it to YIVO. In addition to the inventory folders, bibliographical notes, written in Yiddish and inserted by Borodiansky, can be found in some folders.

BoxFolderTitleDate
99 913 Collection inventories circa 1933
  

72725-72927
Drafts by E. Tcherikower, Borodiansky, and Rapaport. Yiddish.

 
  View the folder 
99 914 Collection inventories undated
  

72928-73066
Includes photocopies of inventories in folder 913.

 
  View the folder 
99 915 Novy Mstislavl (Sloboda) [I.1] 1760-1795
  

73067-73100
Pinkas from the years 5520 to 5555. Hebrew, quarto, 34 pp. (the edges of the pages are damaged).

 
  View the folder 
99 916 Novy Mstislavl (Sloboda) undated
  

73101-73151
Photocopy of pinkas in folder 915.

 
  View the folder 
99 917 Pitrovits (Piotrowice) [I.2] 1726-1809
  

73152-73213
Pinkas from the years 5486 to 5569. Hebrew, quarto, 61 pp.
Original pagination in Hebrew up to p. 68, continues in pencil to p. 91. Missing: pp. 1-26, 28, 31, 33, 36, 55, 92-end.

 
  View the folder 
99 918 Bikhov (Bykhaw, Bychów) [I.3] 1869
  

73214-73258
Register of the hevra kadisha (burial society), copied in 1869 by Yirmiyah, son of Avraham Yermanak from the original pinkas, which included text copied from an earlier pinkas in 1778. Hebrew, copy, 45 pp., bound. Some early entries (pp. 5-7) contain Yiddish.

 
  View the folder 
99 919 Tiktin (Tykocin) [I.4] undated
  

73259-73316
Partial copy of the pinkas of Tiktin and its environs, 1589-1816, bulk 1667-1790.
Hebrew, Yiddish, 103 pp.

 
  View the folder 
99 920 Zabludove (Zabłudów) [I.5] undated
  

73317-73338
Partial copy of pinkas, 1650-1827, 20 pp., Hebrew and Yiddish.

 
  View the folder 
99 921 Birzh (Biržai) [I.6, I.7] undated
  

73339-73386
Partial copy of two pinkasim, including by-laws of the hevra kadisha (burial society) and some records of the years 5544-5596 (1784-1836).

 
  View the folder 
99 922 Pintshev (Pińczów) [I.8] 1632-1740
  

73387-73395
Pages from the pinkas, edges damaged, 8 pp., Hebrew.

 
  View the folder 
99 923 Lublin [I.9] undated
  

73396-73444
Partial copy of pinkas, 1685-1695, 1777-1785.
Copied by Dubnow from a copy made by I. Bernstein in Odessa and sent to Dubnow by Solomon Nissenbaum in 1895. Hebrew and Yiddish, 92 pp. including 3 page introduction by Nissenbaum, 8 page addendum by the copyist.

 
  View the folder 
99 924 Pinkas Medinat Lita 1895
  

73445
Excerpts copied from the pinkas, included as an addendum to a letter from Sh. Beylin of Slutsk to Dubnow, September 1, 1895 (see folder 1020).

 
  View the folder 
99 925 Pinkas Medinat Lita [I.10] 1894
  

73446-73526
Partial copy, a collection of statutes of the Vaad Medinat Lita, 1664-1761, copied in the Strashun Library in Vilna in 1894. Hebrew, 122 pp.

 
  View the folder 
99 926 Pinkas Medinat Litaundated, 1887-1895
  

73527-73554
Supplements to I.10 (folder 925):
a) Page proofs from Hamelitz, Peterburg 1887, containing statutes from the Brisk (Brest) copy of the Pinkas Medinat Lita, 1623-1625, with annotations by Abraham Harkavy. Hebrew, 16 pp.
b) Clipping "On the History of Israel in the Land of Lithuania," by Abraham Harkavy, from Hamelitz, 1894; supplements to the copy made by Yaakov Hirshovski; correspondence from Hirshkovski about copying the pinkas, 1894-1895, Hebrew and Russian.
c) "Excerpts from the Pinkas Medinat Lita" published in Keneset Yisrael vol. 2, ed. Sh. P. Rabinovits, 1887, pp. 29-48. Hebrew.
d) Note about gatherings of the communities after the dissolution of the Vaad Medinat Lita. Hebrew, undated.

 
  View the folder 
99 927 Pinkas Medinat Lita: Horodno (Grodno) [I.11] undated, 1887
  

73555-73632
Partial copy from the Horodno copy of the pinkas: content index referring to statutes #1-941, Hebrew, 20 pp.; copy of statutes #867-954 and others, Hebrew, 42 pp.; proofsheets of the text of Pinkas Medinat Lita Horodno with annotations, not complete, Hebrew, 24 pp.

 
  View the folder 
99 928 Pinkas Medinat Lita: Brisk (Brest) [I.12] 1886
  

73633-73715
Partial copy, prepared by A.L. Feinstein in 1886 from the Brest copy of the pinkas. Hebrew, 79 pp.

 
  View the folder 
99 929 Pinkas Vaad Arba Aratsot: Dubno [I.13] undated
  

73716-73721
Excerpts from the pinkas of the Council of the Four Lands, copied from the Dubno pinkas at the Jewish Historical Ethnographic Society in St. Petersburg. Documents regarding Lublin (1670) and Jaroslaw (1671), Hebrew and Yiddsh, 6 pp.

 
  View the folder 
99 930 Libau, Courland (Libava, Liepāja) [I.14] undated
  

73722-73725
Short description of the pinkas of the hevra kadisha (burial society) from 1800-1867. Hebrew, 4 pp.

 
  View the folder 
99 931 Mstislavl [I.15a] undated
  

73726
Note about the pinkas of Mstislavl and environs, 1702-1823

 
  View the folder 
99 932 Keidan (Kėdainiai) [I.16a, I.16b, I.17] undated
  

73726a-73727
Note about the pinkas of Keidan; wax seal of the Keidan society of tailors, furriers, haberdashers, and lacemakers, from the pinkas of the Poalei-Tsedek Society in Keidan.

 
  View the folder 
99 933 Liozni (Liozna) [I.18] 1899
  

73727-73733
Partial copy of the pinkas of the hevra kadisha, 1750-1820. From the Hasidiana material, Hebrew, 6pp.

 
  View the folder 
Return to the Top of Page
 

Series II: Civilia, 1792-1909

25 folders
Scope and Content:

This series consists of documents about the legal status and the political situation of Jews in Russia and Poland, mainly in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Included are privileges and deeds granted to Jews by various rulers in Eastern Europe, official documents regarding the policies of tsars Nicholas I and Alexander II, documents concerning Max Lilienthal's efforts to establish state schools for Jewish children in Russia, and materials about the Karaites. This series also includes several samples of martyrological literature, such as prayers and lamentations in memory of the victims of pogroms in the times of Bogdan Chmielnicki (1648) and Ivan Gonta (1768). Most of the items in this series are copies and excerpts transcribed by zamlers (collectors) and sent to Dubnow, along with about half a dozen originals.

BoxFolderTitleDate
100 934 Listing of documents in the Civilia section undated
  

73734-73736

 
  View the folder 
100 935a Excerpts from Pinkas of the Four Lands of the Kingdom of Poland [II.1] 1892
  

73737
Laws regarding one who flees from his creditors, copied for Dubnow by Shimon Goldlast of Łomża from the addendum in the book "Ma'amar kadishin," 1764 (see folder 1021). Hebrew, 1 p.

 
  View the folder 
100 935b Rabbi Meyer Margolius [II.2] 1892
  

73738-73739
Copy of a royal decree by King Stanislaw August appointing R' Meyer Hirshl Margolius as rabbi of Bratslav and the Ukraine, January 1775.
Copied from the original by his grandson, Avraham Rabinovitsh in Mohilev Podolsk, with an addendum about R' Meyer Margolius written by Menahem Nahum Litinsky, Mohilev Podolsk, 13 Elul 5652 (see folder 1027). Polish and Hebrew, 4 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 935c Contract between the kehilla of Ostroh (Ostrog) and R' Meyer Margolius [II.3, II.4] 1892
  

73740-73742
Contract appointing Rabbi Meyer Margolius as the rabbi and chief of beit din of Ostroh and its environs, 1777 (renewed in 1784). Two copies made by Menahem Nahum Litinsky, and letter sent by Litinsky to Dubnow. Hebrew, 3 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 935d Banishment of Jews from Courland [II.5, II.6] 1894
  

73743-73746
II.5: Edict of Herzog Ferdinand of 23 March, 1714, copied from Das Inland issue #48 of 1839.
II.6: Decree of Herzog Karl of September 20, 1760, copied from Das Inland issue #8 of 1840.
Copies made by L. Goetz in 1894 (see folder 1021). German, 7 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 935e Podlasie Province [II.7] undated
  

73747-73749
Copy of letters to the council members of the Committee for Jewish Affairs in Warsaw, 9 Heshvan 5585 (1825), from mortgage holders in the Podlasie Province, about their difficult condition.
Hebrew, 4 pp., sent to Dubnow by Yaakov Shapiro in 1892 (see folder 1032).

 
  View the folder 
100 935f Suwałki (Suvalki) [II.8] 1894
  

73750-73751
Copy of a letter from Zalman Posner of Warsaw to the community elders (parnasim) of Suwałki (Yehezkel Lipsky, Avraham Rosenthal, and Moshe Epshteyn), 1843, about projects regarding the status of the peasantry and farm laborers. Hebrew and Yiddish, 4 pp.
Also copy of a history of the Jews of Śniadowo, written by Pinhas Turberg, Jedwabne (see folder 1026).

 
  View the folder 
100 935g Excerpts from Responsa Ateret Tsvi [II.9] undated
  

73752-73753
Excerpts from responsa notation #205 by Rabbi Tsvi son of Azriel of Vilna, about a rabbi in Volhynia who in 1720 claimed to the regional rabbinical council persecution by his community 5480-5481 (1720-1721). Hebrew, 4 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 936a Decree of the Vilna Regional Authority [II.10] 1792
  

73754-73757
On Jews, trade, and the jurisdiction of the Polish courts. Vilna, original, dated 5 May, Polish, 4 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 936b Committee for the History of Odessa Jews [II.11] undated, 1896
  

73758-73795
Copies of five official documents:

a) Letter from Count Kiselev to the governor-general of Novorussia with an addendum about the need for reforming Jewish life in Russia, 13 February 1841, Russian, 8 pp.

b) Memorandum from the Chief of the Interior Ministry, F. Stroganov, to the governor-general of Novorussia and Bessarabia about the proposed reforms regarding the Jews, 19 February 1841, Russian, 8 pp.

c) Decree by Emperor Nicholas I, 1844, regarding ways to educate Jews in Russia, 5 pp.

d) Regulations about Jewish schools and teachers under supervision of the Ministry for Public Education, 1842, 12 pp.

e) Letter from Minister Perovsky to Count (Baron) Vorontsoff, about the laws pertaining to Jewish residence in cities, 3 August 1844, Russian, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 937a Odessa Jewish School [II.12] 1835-1836, 1897
  

73796-73801
a) Certificate for Adolf Lasky for completing the 3rd grade at the Odessa Jewish school, 10 September 1835, Russian, seal, 2 pp.

b) Graduation certificate for Adolf Lasky from the Odessa Jewish school, 20 August 1836, Russian, 2 pp.

c) Letter from Adolf Lasky to Dubnow, dated 10 January 1897, about the above two certificates, Russian, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 937b 1000-year celebration of Russian empire [II.13] circa 1890s
  

73802-73804
a) Excerpt of a letter sent by Yaakov Barit (Kovner) to Yehoshua Heshel Levin in Vilna, Monday, 12 Tishrei 5623, about the Jewish delegation from Vilna to St. Petersburg for the 1000-year celebration of Russian empire in September 1862, copied from Levin's book Pleitas Sofrim, 1863. Hebrew, 4 pp.

b) Hebrew translation of an address from the Vilna kehilla to Tsar Alexander II, in honor of the 1000-year celebration of Russia, 8 September 1862, translated from Russian by Yaakov Barit (Kovner) and also published in Pleitas Sofrim.

 
  View the folder 
100 937c Karaites [II.14] 1887-1888, 1892, 1896
  

73805-73812
a) About Karaites, by Shimon Stanislavsky, 1887, Yekaterinoslav, Russian, 2 pp.

b) Shimon Stanislavsky's article about the Karaites, "Chronicle of the Karaite Literature," Hamelitz, no. 243, 28 November 1888

c) Copy from Polin-Chronicles regarding the influx of Karaites into Lithuania, Volhynia, and Galicia, according to a Karaite manuscript of 5555 (1795). Copied by Shmuel ben R' Moyshe and affirmed by Yitzhak Altansky, Bakhtshisaray, 11 January 1896, Hebrew, 2 pp.

d) Mailing envelope from Altansky in Bakhtshisaray, addressed to the head of the Karaite Synagogue in Odessa, Yehudah ben R' Yitzhak Savaliskan, 11 January 1896, Russian.

e) Letter from M. N. Litinsky of Mohilev-Podolsk to Dubnow about the Karaites, 10 July 1892, including an excerpt from a letter from Elisha Lenovits to Avraham Firkovitch about the Karaites, copied from a 1865 manuscript by Kordo of Krasna, Hebrew, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 938 Khmelnitsky pogroms of 1648-1649 (Takh-ve-Tat) [II.15] 1892-1893
  

73813-73828
a) Copy of the introduction to Shabbetai Katz's book of selichot, Megillat Eifa, Hebrew, 3 pp.

b) Same as above, copied and with comment by Shalom Aleksander Rivkin of Homel, Mohilev Province, 23 December 1892, Hebrew, 8 pp.

c) Copy of selicha composed by R' Yehiel Mikhel of Nemirov following the events of Takh-ve-Tat (1648-1649), and copy of selicha from the book Kol Yaakov by Yaakov Kopel Margolios. Hebrew, 2 pp.

d) Same selicha by R' Yehiel Mikhel of Nemirov, copied by Eliezer Yitzhak Feygin of Bialystok from Seder ha-Selichot, printed in Poritsk, 1794. Hebrew, 2 pp.

e) Same selicha from Kol Yaakov by Yaakov Kopel Margolios. Hebrew, 1 p.

f) Excerpts copied by Hayim Eliezer Dubnikov of Tulczyn (Tulchin), 11 June 1893, from R' Jacob Emden's autobiographic text, Megillat Sefer, and from Tiferet Yisrael by Yisroel Zuta, about the 1648-1649 catastrophe. Hebrew, 8 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 939a Lamentations (selichot v'kinot) [II.16] undated, 1896
  

73829-73833
Selichot about the martyrs Moshe and Yehudah, sons of Yekusiel, murdered in Warsaw in 5356 (1596):

a) Copied from Selihot mi-kol ha-shanah ke-minhag kehilot kedoshot Poznan ve-Hrodni ve-ha-galil published in Frankfurt, 1785. Sent to Dubnow by Dr. Chazanowicz, Hebrew, 1 p.

b) Selicha composed by Rabbi Moshe Mordechai Margolis of Krakow, published in Prague, 1675. Copied by Sh. Grinfeld (see folder 1021). See also Amude ha-avodah by Eliezer Landshuth, p. 232.

c) Letter sent to Dubnow by Henokh Pekhote describing an old selicha, apparently the same one as item a.

 
  View the folder 
100 939b Gezerot Takh-ve-Tat and Gonta [II.17] 1890, 1895
  

73834-73839

a) A detailed essay by Menahem Nahum Litinsky, sent to Dubnow in 1895, reproducing, with citations, Yiddish and Russian folksongs about the persecutions by Cossacks in Podolia. Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian, 4 pp.

b) Essay by Menahem Nahum Litinsky about the Gonta massacres in 1768. Written in Mohilev Podolsk, 22 June 1890, for the Sholem Aleichem Yiddish Public Library. Includes a transcription of a kina (lamentation) about the massacre of Jews in Uman. Yiddish, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 939c Catastrophes [II.18] undated, 1892
  

73840-73843
a) Excerpt from Sha'ar ha-melekh by R' Mordekhai, chief of the beit din of Vilkotch (Wielkie Oczy), 1790, copied by Pinhas Ha-kohen Turberg, 7 Elul 5652 (1892), Jedwabne, about the atrocities of 5528 (1768) in Uman and other places, Hebrew, 4 pp.

b) Stories of the blood libel cases in Turzysk (Turiysk, Trisk) and in Kovel, 5551 (1791), Yiddish, 4 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 940a Persecutions of Jews [II.19, II.20, II.21] 1894-1895
  

73844-73846
II.19: Two letters from Yitzhak Nisnboym, sent 28 December 1894 and 31 July 1895, with excerpts from various books: Beit Lehem Yehudah; She'elot u-Teshuvot Heishiv Eliezer; responsa by Mordekhai Ziskind Rutenberg; Teshuvot Ha-geonim Batrai; Emunat Shmuel; and others, about the massacres and persecutions in Moscow, Bikhov (Bykhaw, Bychów), Mohilev (Mogilev), Pereyaslav, and other locations. Hebrew, 3 pp.

73847-73849
II.20: Excerpts from various books, such as Rosh Yosef, Even ha-Shoham, Kikayon de-Yonah, copied by Yaakov Shapiro, Mezritch (Międzyrzec), 22 Av 5655 (1895). Hebrew, 3 pp.

73850-73853
II.21: El mole rakhamim (memorial prayers) for the victims of Takh-ve-Tat (1648-1649); the blood libel in Pavoloch in 1753; and victims in Tvarov, Mohilev, Chernigov, and Sinyavka, reproduced from an old pinkas of Nesvizh by Shmuel David Faynberg's son, with a comment by Shmuel David Faynberg, dated 7 Shevat 5655 (1895), addressed to Yitzhak Nisnboym. Hebrew, 4 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 940b Statutes and orders [II.22, II.23, II.24] undated, 1823, 1896
  

73854-73855
II.22: Statutes from R' Feibush of Krakow, the Ba'al ha-Taz of Lvov, and others regarding sales, merchandising matters, taxes, rentals, and mortgages. Copied by Isser Nastashkin in Belotserkov, 3 Tevet 5656 (1896), with comments (see folder 1028). Hebrew, 3 pp.

73856
II.23: Note from the Vilna Police refering to prohibition of Jews to live on the most prominent streets of Vilna, 10 September 1823, Yiddish and Polish, 1 p. Remarks in Dubnow's hand, in Russian, dated 1908.

73857-73859
II.24: Copy of a writ of orders from the governor of Grodno, 1852, referring to the prohibition of shaving off Jewish women's hair. Russian, 3 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 941 Address to Nicholas II, from the Society of True Russian Men in Odessa [II.25] 1909
  

73860-73861
Copy of a draft speech on the occasion of Nicholas II's passage through Odessa in September. Signatures were collected but the address was never delivered. Russian, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 942 Dr. Lilienthal [II.26] undated, 1842
  

73862-73870
a) Certificate for Dr. Max Lilienthal in gratitude for his mission on behalf of the Ministry of Public Education, signed by Minister Perovsky, St. Petersburg, 29 July 1842. Copy, Russian, 1 pp.
b) Two copies of a document attesting to the importance of Lilienthal's mission, from 22 June 1842. Hebrew, 8 pp.
c) Letter from Lilienthal, St. Petersburg, to a friend in Odessa, 10 July 1842. Yiddish, 4 pp.
d) Yiddish translation of the decree of 13 November 1844 establishing state schools for Jews in the Russian Empire. Copied by Eliezer Yitzhak Feygin of Bialystok. Yiddish and Hebrew, 3 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 943a Committee for Jewish Affairs in Warsaw [II.27] undated
  

73871-73874
Copy of document issued 18 February 1846, containing instructions on how to "enlighten" the Jewish masses about the restrictions on Jewish residence issued on the 26th of January.

 
  View the folder 
100 943b Committee for Jewish Affairs in Warsaw [II.28] 1825
  

73875-73880
Copy of letters to the council members of the Committee for Jewish Affairs in Warsaw, 8 Heshvan 5586 (1825), from mortgage holders in the Podlasie Province, about their difficult situation. See folder 935e. Hebrew, 6 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 944a Circular about Zionist enclaves [II.30] 1903
  

73881
Circular from Minister of the Interior Vyacheslav von Plehve and Police Chief Alexei Lopukhin about supervision of Zionist enclaves and steps to be taken to obstruct Jewish national movements, 24 June. Russian, 1 p.

 
  View the folder 
100 944b Call from the Odessa Union of the Russian People to the Jews [II.31] 1909
  

73882
Concerning the elections to national Duma of 28 September, signed by B. A. Pelikan. Printed flyer, Russian, 1 p.

 
  View the folder 
Return to the Top of Page
 

Series III: Communalia, 1880-1912

33 folders
Scope and Content:

This series is centered on local history, documenting approximately thirty-five communities in Ukraine, Belarus and Poland. Materials are arranged by community name. This diverse series contains excerpts from pinkasim, materials about blood libels and other proceedings against Jews, including those in Mezritch (Międzyrzec), Velizh (1823-1835), and Novy Ushitsa (1838-1840), martyrological texts, and tombstone inscriptions.

BoxFolderTitleDate
100 945a Baranovka [III.1] 1894
  

73883-73885
Letter from Sh. Grinfeld to Dubnow, 8 February, containing statutes from the pinkas of the hevra kadisha, 1780, and excerpts from other books about victims of persecutions. Hebrew, 6 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 945b Bobovne (Babovnya) [III.2] undated (circa 1894)
  

73886-73887
Message from Aharon Turbovitz about a blood libel against his ancestor, Shepsl Trubovitz in Bobovne, detailed in Hamelitz no. 37, 24 February 1893. Hebrew, 1 p.
Written on the back of a copy made by the Turbovitz family of a decree about punishing the convert Grudinsky for libeling Jews, in connection with the Velizh court case, 10 July 1830. Russian, 3 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 945c Bikhov (Bykhaw, Bychów) [III.3] 1880
  

73888-73889
Privileges granted to the Jews of Bychów by the Deputy Chancellor of Lithuania, Michał Sapieha, 17 February 1758. Renewed in 1827 and 1880. Polish, copy, 1 p.

 
  View the folder 
100 945d Belaya Tserkov [III.4] 1894
  

73890
Copy of statutes of the Hevra Kadisha Gomlei Hasadim for the year 5532 (1772), in a letter sent to Dubnow by Hirsh Koptshik, 31 March 1894. Hebrew, 1 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 945e Bialystok [III.5] undated
  

73891-73897
a) List of inscriptions on gravestones from the Bialystok cemetery for the years 5570-5620 (1810-1860), with remarks by Dr. Joseph Chazanowicz, Bialystok, Hebrew, 5 pp.

b) Rabbinic certification for Shlomo Zalman Tiktin in Bialystok, dated 5549 (1789), copy, Hebrew, 4 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 945f Velizh [III.6] 1893-1894
  

73898-73925
Documents regarding the Velizh blood libel, 1823-1835:
a) Excerpts from the Senate memorandum on the trial, compiled by Dubnow in the form of a notebook titled "Zapiski Velizhe" (Notes on Velizh), June 1893, 82 pp., Russian.

b) Three letters from L. N. Etingen to Dubnow about the Velizh trial, Velizh, 19 April, 26 May and 29 June 1893, Russian, 16 pp.

c) Two letters to Dubnow about the Velizh trial from Hayim Rivkin, Velizh, 21 November 1893 and 9 January 1894, Russian, 16 pp.

d) Dubnow's remarks and bibliographic notes appended to the Velizh proceedings, Russian, 10 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 946 Vizun [III.7] 1893-1894, 1912
  

73926-73941
a) A letter to Dubnow from Nahum Dov-Ber Garb on the history of Vizun, dated 4 February 1894, Vilkomir, with excerpts from the statutes of the Hevra Tehillim in Utyan (Kovno Gubernia), Hebrew, 8 pp.

b) Materials about the martyr, R' Menakhem Mani of Vizun: excerpts from a manuscript by the Rabbi of Shklov, included in a letter by Yehuda Leyb Don Yachya to Dubnow, 1894, Hebrew, 3 pp., along with three clippings from Hamelitz, 1893.

c) Letter from Azriel Yafat and Ben-Tsion Don Yachya and materials about R' Menakhem Mani, 7 February 1912, Russian and Hebrew, 10 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 947a Homel (Gomel) [III.8] 1898
  

73942
Gravestone from the old cemetery from the year 5512 (1752), in the courtyard of Babushkins' Shul, copy by Dubnow, 24 August 1898, 1 p., Hebrew, with additional remarks by Dubnow in Russian.

 
  View the folder 
100 947b Dubno [III.9] 1892-1893
  

73943-73946
Excerpts from the Dubno pinkasim, printed in Hamelitz, 1892 no. 124, 233, 241, and 1893 no. 63 by Hayim Margolis, sent to Dubnow with a Russian addendum by Shalom Rabinovich (Sholem Aleichem).

 
  View the folder 
100 947c Kishinev [III.10] 1894
  

73947
Inscriptions from the Kishinev cemetery, 1712-1794, by Wolf Vaynshteyn, included in a letter to Dubnow, 18 October (see folder 1023), Hebrew, 1 p.

[III.11 not used]

 
  View the folder 
100 947d Kritchev, Mohilev Province [III.12] 1893
  

73948
Privilege issued to the Jews by the King Jan Kazimierz, 1664, published in translation by a Russian notary on 12 October, 1893. Russian, 1 p.

 
  View the folder 
100 947e Liozna [III.13] 1898-1899
  

73949-73954
Three letters about the Jewish community of Liozna, Mohilev Province, from Dr. Abram Bramson, 8 December, 22 January and 7 June, Russian, 5 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 947f Lutsk [III.14] 1892
  

73955-73956
Letter containing the inscription on the gravestone of the martyr Zev-Wolf, killed in 1762 in Lutsk. Sent to Dubnow by L. Binshtok, 6 December.

 
  View the folder 
100 948 Lublin [III.15] 1892-1895
  

73957-73969
a) Inscriptions from 26 gravestones in the Lublin cemetery, sent to Dubnow by R' Yosef Levinshteyn, rabbi of Serock, February 1894, Hebrew, 4 pp.

b) Accounts of the massacre of 5417 (1657) and the fire of 5367 (1607), in a letter by Yaakov Shapiro, Mezritch (Międzyrzec), October 1895. Hebrew, 3 pp.

c) Letter from Tuva Habavli, Kovno, 16 December 1892, with a copy of a passage from the responsa Yosef Da'at (Mounting Knowledge), about the 1607 fire in Lublin. Hebrew, 3 pp.

d) Letter and postcard from Shlomo Nisnboym of Lublin, 12 February and 3 March 1895, containing the inscription on the 5396 (1646) gravestone of the martyr R' Nahman. Hebrew, 3 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 949 Mezritch (Międzyrzec) (Międzyrzec) [III.16] 1891, 1893
  

73970-73989

Correspondence from Yaakov Shapiro, including:
a) Excerpts from the pinkas of Mezritch (Międzyrzec), covering the years 5492-5563 (1732-1803). Hebrew, 8 pp.

b) Letter, 15 Sivan 5653 (1893), about the apostate Meyer (Paul) the Informer. Hebrew, 5 pp.

c) The story of Vohin, near Mezritch (Międzyrzec), a folk-tale recorded and annotated by Yaakov Shapiro. Hebrew, 4 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 950a Mohilev Podolsk [III.17] undated
  

73990-73991
Inscriptions from old gravestones in the Mohilev cemetery from the years 5483-5552 (1723-1792), with annotations, and excerpt from the Podolian book of statistics, copied by Menahem Litinsky. Hebrew and Russian, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 950b Mohilev-on the-Dnieper [III.18] undated
  

73992-74005
a) Excerpts from Mohilev archival records, including from the "Belarusian Archive of Old Records," 1824, with annotations by S. Dubnow, Russian, 16 pp.

b) Excerpts from a book, 1884, describing Mohilev Province. Russian, 4 pp.

c) Memorial service for the martyrs of the year 1655, Mohilev Province, copied from a manuscript in Shepelevichi by Shimon Volkov. Hebrew, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 951 Mstislavl [III.19] undated
  

74006-74015
a & b) Excerpts from the pinkas of the hevra levaya (funerary society) for the year 5568 (1808), annotated by Dubnow, describing events of 5504 (1744), Hebrew, 10 pp.

c) Excerpts about the Mstislavl miracle of 1844 (The Purim of Mstislavl) sent by Yitzhak Malkin of Smolensk, with remarks by Dubnow, Hebrew, 10 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 952a Nesvizh and Snov [III.20] undated, 1892
  

74016-74019
a) Three halakhic decisions in the case between the kehillot of Nezvizh and Snov, copied by David Slutski of Snov, Hebrew, 4 pp., with remarks by Dubnow in Russian.

b) Claims of the kehilla of Brisk (Brest Litovsk) in the dispute between Nesvizh and Snov, dated (5547) 1787, as related by David Slutski in a letter to Dubnow, 12 December 1892.

 
  View the folder 
100 952b Nowogrodek (Novogrudok/Navahrudak) [III.21] undated, 1893-1894
  

74020-74023
a) Excerpts from the "Decisions of the Commission of Good Order" (Boni Ordinis), dated 25 August 1739, about residential permits for Jews in Nowogrodek. Polish and Russian, copy of a copy, 1 p.

b) Excerpt from the pinkas of the Hevra Kadisha Lomdei Mishnayos about the martyr R' Meyer, killed in Nowogrodek. Letter from Yaakov Hirshovsky, Vilna, 23 January 1894. Russian and Hebrew, 4 pp.

c) Clipping from Hamelitz, 1893 no. 116, about the "Velmer martyrs," by Shaul Aharon Rubinshteyn.

 
  View the folder 
100 953 Ostroh, Zaslav, Stepan, and Olik, Volhynia Province [III.22] undated, 1895-1897
  

74024-74041
a) Megillat Tammuz, 5552 (1792), about the miracle in Ostroh during the war between Russia and Poland, 2 copies by unknown copyist and Naftali Hirts Lernir, Yiddish and Hebrew, 4 pp.

b) Elegies for the martyrs of Zaslav, copy of an old manuscript with an appendix by the copyist M. Mendel Biber, Hebrew, 1 pp.

c) Two letters, dated 2 October 1895 and 15 February 1897, from M. Mendel Biber about Zaslav, Stepan and Olik, Hebrew, 3 pp.

d) Megillat Stepan (The Scroll of Stepan) about the libel cast on R' Yoel of Lutsk, copied by M. Mendel Biber, Hebrew, 7 pp.

e & f) Information about Stepan and Olik, from M. Mendel Biber, Hebrew, 4 pp.

g) Inscription on the gravestone of R' Shmuel Eliezer son of Yehudah (Maharsha) in Ostroh, 7 Heshvan, 5501 (1740), and his family, copied by Naftali Hirts Lerner. Hebrew, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 954a Ostropol [III.23] 1895
  

74042-74043
Stories about the burial of R' Shimshon of Ostropol, in a letter by Moshe Shpiglbord, 11 June, from Ostropol.

 
  View the folder 
100 954b Pintshev (Pińczów) [III.24] 1894
  

74044-74053, 74060
a) Siddur Pintshev, copies of an old prayer book, manuscript from the Pintshev Beit Midrash, dated 5375 (1614). Copies made by S. Dubnow, July 1894, Hebrew, 6 pp.

b) Letter from the rabbi of Herzog, R' Yosef Bera, about the Pintshev Siddur, Hebrew, 2 pp.

c) Two El mole rakhamims for the martyrs of Pintshev, copied by Yitzhak Meyer Levinshteyn of Koszyce.

 
  View the folder 
100 954c Plock [also III.24] 1894
  

74054-74059
a) Polish translation of two documents, from the years 1754 and 1792, about the persecutions and murder of the Plock Jewish elders by the town administration. Hebrew texts excerpted from the synagogue records, 3 pp.

b) Letter from Israel Nozyca, 14 February, about the persecutions and murder of the Plock Jewish elders by the town administration. Russian, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 955a Pohrebyshche [III.25] 1894
  

74061-74066
Stories about the town, in a letter by Fishl Guttman to Dubnow, Hebrew, 6 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 955b Poznań (Poyzn, Posen) [III.26] undated, 1903
  

74067-74083
a) Excerpts about the persecutions in 1704, 1717, 1736, drawn from Kuntres shel Minhag Posen via J. Perles' 1865 Geschichte der Juden in Posen (History of the Jews in Poznań). Hebrew, 2 pp.

b) Elegy for the Fire of Posen, copied from R' Yitzhak Khayes of Krakow's book P'nei Yitzhak, 5351 (1591), Hebrew, 6 pp.

c) Selichot for the 5th of Av about the persecutions of 5476 (1706-1707), copied from Kuntres shel Minhag Posen, published in Dyhernfurth, 5556 (1796). Hebrew, 8 pp.

d) Excerpts from the book of responsa Even ha-Shoham by Eliyakum Getz, Dyhernfurth, 5493 (1733), regarding the persecutions of 5460-5478 (1700-1718). Copied by Yaakov Shapiro of Mezritch (Międzyrzec), Hebrew, 4 pp.

e) Excerpts from "Ma'aseh Hashem" (God's Deeds), published in Roedelheim, 5513 (1753), about the false accusation in Posen of 1696. Sent to Dubnow by Chazanowicz in Shvat 5663. Hebrew and Yiddish, 6 pp.

[III.27 not used]

 
  View the folder 
100 955c Pruzhany [III.28] 1895
  

74084-74087
A letter from Moshe-Nisn Yanovski containing an excerpt from the community pinkas of Pruzhany, 5568-5574 (1808-1814), and other data, dated first day of hol ha-moed Sukkot, 5656 (1895), Hebrew, 4 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 955d Rasein (Raseiniai) [III.29] 1897
  

74088-74090
Story about Pan Stolbnik, the repressions of Jews in Rasein, and other information, in a letter from R' Finfer of Vilna. Hebrew, 3 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 956 Ruzhany [III.30] undated, 1893
  

74091-74120
a) Selichot for the martyrs of Ruzhana, 5420 (1659), copied by Dr. Joseph Chazanowicz from a general ledger in Ruzhana. Hebrew, 6 pp.

b) "Da'at kedoshim al harugei Ruzhana ta'kh ve-yihusam," recognizing the victims of Ruzhana killed in 1659 and their lineage, written by Israel Tuviah Eisenstadt. Hebrew, 39 pp., pp. 19, 20 missing.

c) Selichot for the martyrs of Ruzhana written by R' Shimon Khozok, transcribed from a manuscript owned by R' Eliyahu Yafe in Ruzhana, with remarks by S. Dubnow. Hebrew, 4 pp.

d) Copy of the 5635 (1875) monument for the Ruzhana martyrs of the blood libel of 5420 (1659), R' Yisrael and R' Tuviah, plus some notes about the blood libel, in a letter to Dubnow dated 12 Tishrei 5653 (1893), sent by Aharon Moshe Mazursky. Hebrew and Russian, with remarks appended by Dubnow, 4 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 957a Slonim [III.31] undated
  

74121-74122
Excerpt from the pinkas of the Bikur Holim Society about the pogrom of 5524 (1764), transcribed by R' Yitzhak Shamash in Slonim, Hebrew, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 957b Slutsk [III.32] 1894
  

74123
Excerpts from the pinkas of the hevra kadisha of Slutsk, starting in 5438 (1678), copied by Shmaryahu Beylin. Hebrew, 1 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 957c Ushitsa Trial [III.33] undated
  

74124-74135
Trial for the murder of two Jewish informers in Novaya Ushitsa, 1838-1840:
a) Copy of trial proceedings, 16 pp., Russian, with Dubnow's remarks, first 2 pp. are missing.

b) Report of the trial in a letter account of the "Litnivetser Mayse", written on stationery of Sh. A. Hornshteyn, Odessa, Russian, 7 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 957d Lublin [III.34] 1902
  

74136-74139
a) Lists of prayers and commemorations for martyrs, translated from a 17th century manuscript from Lublin, copied by Dubnow from a copy by Shlomo Nisnboym, Adar 5662 (1902). Hebrew, 3 pp.

b) Letters from the kehilla of Lublin dated 5469 (1709) to R' Aharon Avraham Ber, shtadlan (intercessor and advocate for the Jewish community) in Aurich, asking for help. Copied by Dubnow from a copy sent by Dr. Chazanowicz, Hebrew, 1 pp.

 
  View the folder 
Return to the Top of Page
 

Series IV: Pogroms, 1881-1923

24 folders
Scope and Content:

The materials in this series were gathered mostly during Dubnow's last years in Russia, between 1919 and 1922. Dubnow was then involved in editing the documentary volumes on anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia and spent considerable time poring over the newly available records of the former imperial archives. In this series, there are reports by government officials and other information about pogroms in the modern era, including those of 1881, 1903, 1905, and 1906. In addition, there are memoranda on the situation of Jews in Russia that were submitted to the Pahlen Commission (the High Commission for the Review of Current Legislation on the Jews of the Russian Empire, 1883-1888), including one written by Dubnow.

BoxFolderTitleDate
100 958 List of files undated
  

74140-74141
Russian (incomplete)

 
  View the folder 
100 959 Reports about pogroms [IV.1] 1881-1882
  

74142-74217
a) Information from police precincts, from German newspapers and from miscellaneous reports, April-May 1881, largely in Russian, 68 pp.

b) Reports about pogrom agitation and orders, related to the trial of pogrom perpetrators, May 1881-January 1882, Russian, printed copy, 17 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 960 Kutaisov Report [IV.2] 1881-1883, 1923
  

74218-74319
a) Report by Count P. I. Kutaisov about the pogroms of June 1881 in Bessarabia, Poltava Province, and Kiev Province, including a report by Jews of Yelizavetgrad about the pogroms in in Kherson Province. Printed copy, Russian, 99 pp.

b) Addendum to Kutaisov report, Russian, 3 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 961a Report by Prince Shakhovskoy [IV.3] 1882
  

74320-74326
Governor of Chernigov, on the pogroms in Chernigov Province, August 1881-January 1882, Russian, 7 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 961b Pogroms of 1881 [IV.4] 1881-1882
  

74327-74334
Correspondence exchanged between the police department and the gendarmerie of the interior ministry. Typed copies, Russian, 8 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 962 Pogroms of 1882 [IV.5] 1882
  

74335-74381
Documents about the pogroms in Podolia, pp. 1-5; Kherson, pp. 6-14; Chernigov, pp. 15-16; Bessarabia, pp. 17-18; Kiev, pp. 19; Yekaterinoslav, pp. 20; Poland, pp. 21-23; general letters about pogroms, pp. 24-26; emigration and groups, pp. 27-29; addenda, pp. 30-46. Typed copies, Russian.

 
  View the folder 
100 963 Pogroms of 1900-1902 [IV.6] 1900-1902
  

74382-74397
Odessa pogroms of 1900; pogrom in Konstantinovo (Vaškai), Lithuania, 1900; Częstochowa pogrom of 1902; the situation in Mohilev, 1902. Typed copies, Russian, 16 pp.

 
  View the folder 
100 964 Dubossary blood libel [IV.7] 1903
  

74398-74426
copy, typescript, Russian, 29 pp.

 
  View the folder 
BoxFolderTitleDate
101 965 Kishinev pogrom [IV.8] 1903
  

74427-74486
copy, typescript, Russian, 60 pp.

 
  View the folder 
101 966a Homel pogrom and Vitebsk confrontation [IV.9] 1903
  

74487-74497
copy, typescript, Russian, 11 pp.

 
  View the folder 
101 966b Pogroms in 1904 [IV.10] 1904
  

74498-74501
Pogroms in Vitebsk and Smola, copies in typescript, Russian, 8 pp.

 
  View the folder 
101 966c Pogroms in 1905 [IV.11] 1905
  

74502-74518
Pogroms in Zhitomir, Polotsk, Vitebsk, Melitopol, Brest, and Grodno, copies and typescripts, Russian, 17 pp.

 
  View the folder 
101 967 Pogroms in 1905 [IV.12] 1905
  

74519-74582
Pogroms in Minsk, Saratov, Vitebsk, Skidele, Vilna, Yekaterinoslav, Kishinev, Bessarabia in general, Saratov, Bialystok, Grodno, Kiev, Berdichev, Uman, and Rostov. Various circulars about the pogroms prepared by the police department in 1905. Copies, Russian, 66 pp.

 
  View the folder 
101 968a Bialystok pogrom [IV.13] 1906
  

74583-74591
copies, typescript, Russian, 9 pp.

 
  View the folder 
101 968b Bialystok pogroms [IV.14] 1905-1906
  

74592-74604
copies, typescript, Russian, 13 pp.

 
  View the folder 
101 968c Homel pogrom [IV.15] 1906
  

74605-74619
copies, typescript. 15 pp., Russian

 
  View the folder 
101 969 Various pogroms, 1903-1907 [IV.16] 1903-1907
  

74620-74624
a) Reports on: Zvenigorodok; Kishinev; regarding Jewish recruits; Bialystok; Siedlce; the situation in Podolia and Volhynia. Copies, typescript, Russian, 4 pp.

b) Telegram to the Ministry of Justice about the pogrom in Melitopol, copy, typescript, Russian, 1 p.

 
  View the folder 
101 970 Court case between residents of Biržai and Count Tyszkiewicz [IV.17] 1892
  

74625-74643
Printed copy of decisions of the lawsuit, with signature of Tyszkiewicz's attorney, Bernard Andreevich Fridman, Russian, 19 pp.

 
  View the folder 
101 971 Report on legistlation concerning Russian Jews [IV.18] 1904
  

74644-74671
by Minister of Interior V.K. Plehve, January 1904. Copy, typescript, Russian, 54 pp.

 
  View the folder 
101 972 The History of Russian Legislation Regarding Jews [IV.19] 1886
  

74672-74682
Excerpt from Istoriia Russkogo Zakonodatel'stva o Evreiakh by N. N. Golitzin (Golitsyn), volume I, (1649-1825), St. Petersburg, annotated by Dubnow. Russian, 14 pp.

 
  View the folder 
101 973 Report on the Question of Educating Jews (Doklad Po voprosu o merakh otnositel'no obrazovaniya yevreyev, Rus: Доклад По вопросу о мерах относительно образования евреев) [IV.20] 1886
  

74683-74863
Report by A.I. Georgievsky for the Pahlen Commission, printed, Russian, 314 pp., notes by Dubnow.

 
  View the folder 
101 974 Review of the Laws Regarding Jews in Russia Today (Obzor nyne deystvuyushchikh isklyuchitel'nykh zakonov o yevreyakh, Rus: Обзор ныне действующих исключительных законов о евреях) [IV.21] 1883
  

74864-74917
Report by M.G. Margulis for the Pahlen Commission, Russian, 89 pp.

 
  View the folder 
101 975 The Jewish Question and the Pogroms of 1881-1882 (Yevreyskiy vopros i anti-yevreyskoye dvizheniye v Rossii v 1881 i 1882, Rus: Еврейский вопрос и анти-еврейское движение в России в 1881 и 1882) [IV.22] circa 1884
  

74918-75052
Report for the Pahlen Commission, Russian, 248 pp.

 
  View the folder 
101 976 Babovnya pogrom [IV.23] undated, 1893
  

75053-75057
"Megillat Shabtai": Account of the pogrom in the town of Bobovne in the year 5589 (1829), copied by Zev-Wolf Turbovitz from a manuscript by his father R' Aharon Yehoshua, Hebrew, 4 pp., accompanied by a clipping from Hamelitz no. 37, "Ir ha-damim" (The City of Blood), by Y. N. Goldberg (see folder 945b).

 
  View the folder 
Return to the Top of Page
 

Series V: Miscellania, 1760-1921

32 folders
Scope and Content:

This series contains a variety of historical documents that often overlap with the materials in the preceeding series. Worth mentioning is a collection of family documents of the Dubnow family, including personal documents of Bentsion Dubnow, Simon Dubnow's grandfather, who was a scholar and teacher in Mstislavl. Also present are folders of newspaper clippings in Russian, Hebrew, and Yiddish.

BoxFolderTitleDate
101 977 Redivierte General-Privilegium und Reglement [V.1] 18th century
  

75058-75085
Privilege issued by Friedrich II in 1750 for the Jews of Prussia, copy, German.

 
  View the folder 
101 978 Family papers of Bentsion Dubnow [V.2] undated, 1782-1906
  

75086-75159
Documents from Simon Dubnow's grandfather Bentsion, Bentsion's father Zev-Wolf, Bentsion's brother Avigdor, and Avigdor's son Bentsion.

a) Contract with Michał Perczewski regarding building a house on his parcel of land, 1782, Polish, 2 pp.

b) Contract, 17 April 1800, regarding leasing a parcel of land in Mstislavl, Polish, 1 p.

c) Copy of an administrative decision in connection with a complaint by Velki (Zev-Wolf) Dubnov, son of Bentsion, 21 August 1825, regarding an unpaid loan?, Russian, 2 pp.

d) Copy of a decision about the same arenda complaint by Velki (Zev-Wolf) Dubnov, 29 September 1831, Russian, 2 pp.

e) Will and testament of Avigdor (Victor), son of Zev-Wolf Dubnov, 24 August 1839, Russian, 4 pp., first and second sheets missing.

f) Fragment of will, Hebrew, written in Avigdor Dubnov's hand, 1839.

g) Certificate issued to Bentsion Dubnow by the Mstislavl magistrate concerning his father Avigdor's will, 22 January 1844, Russian, 4 pp.

h) Blank check, signed by Avigdor Dubnov, Russian.

i) Power of attorney for handling matters in the name of the Christian and Jewish merchants in Mstislavl and requesting permits for brick houses, April 1855, draft, Russian, 2 pp.

j) Contract between Avigdor Dubnov and Yisrael-Isser, son of R' Mordekhai Khazanov, 23 August 1838, presented to the Mstislavl police, with signatures and approvals, Russian, 2 pp.

k) Contract between Avigdor Dubnov and Yisrael-Isser Khazanov, 6 Elul 5598 (27 August 1838), Mstislavl, Hebrew, 2 pp.

l) Five documents concerning the State Jewish School in Mstislavl:
(1) to Bentsion Dubnov regarding housing a school in his home, 3 December 1855
(2) same, 31 June 1856
(3) outlines Bentsion Dubnov's role as honorary chairman of the school, 28 January 1857
(4) request to Bentsion Dubnov to send his annual contribution to the school, 23 January 1858
(5) receipt for that donation, 12 February 1858

m) Ledger of Bentsion Dubnov as honorary chairman of the Mstislavl Jewish school for the year 1855, Russian, 2 pp.

n) Letter from Avigdor Dubnov to his brother Moshe regarding his rights to the house in Mstislavl, November 1820, Russian, 2 pp.

o) Certified documents sent to Yankel Davidovich Yakubson from Hillel Rapoport, listing court documents from Vilna court that were sent to Yakubson. Court documents pertain to various legal cases, Russian, 2 pp.

p) Two documents from Bentsion Vigdorov Dubnov, related to the fires of 1858 and 1863 in Mstislavl. Written in Mohilev, where Dubnov was temporarily residing, Russian, 4 pp.

q) (1) request from Nahman, son of Mordekhai Kahanov of Mstislavl, regarding a debt of 150 rubles, September 1861
(2) loan document from Leib, son of Avrom Kahanov, dated 14 July 1858, regarding the obligation of Nahman, son of Mordekhai Kahanov, Russian, 2 pp.

r) Certification to Bentsion Vigdorov Dubnov, 31 December 1869, granting permission to live anywhere in Russia, for one year, from 1871 to 1872. Russian, 2 pp.

s) Contract regarding residence in the house of Bentsion Vigdorov Dubnov, between himself and Leib Livshitz, dated 1 May 1843, Russian, 2 pp.

t) Petition by Bentsion Vigdorov Dubnov

u) Contract drawn by the Mstislavl community about installing Shneyer Yitskhok Halevy as the new shoykhet, with signatures of a large number of town balebatim (householders), among them Bentsion Dubnov, 1851. Hebrew, 2 pp.

v) Petition for help, from the community of Mstislavl to Countess Saltykova, as their protector, in connection with the banishment of 1843, 3 pp.

w) Petition sent to the Mohilev governor from the Mstislavl citizens and merchants' association, 4 pp.

x) Listing of ma'ot hittim donations in Mstislavl, with many names of local balebatim (householders), Hebrew, 5 pp.

y) Judgment of the beit din of Mstislavl, dated 26 Sivan 5666 (1906), regarding sale of a house belonging to David, son of Meyer Frumkin and his sister-in-law, with reference to Yisrael son of Yehuda Leib Lipshits, Hebrew, 2p.

 
  View the folder 
BoxFolderTitleDate
102 979 Trial of the Vilna Kahal of 1787 [V.3] undated, 1799-1807
  

75160-75182
Decisions of Lithuanian assessors in the conflict between the kahal and Vilna Rabbi Shmuel b. Avigdor, excerpted from the municipal books of Vilna county, 1798, Polish, 8 pp. numbered 216-220; Russian translation of the document, 1799, 6 pp. numbered 210-215; also copy of the Russian translation written partly by Dubnow himself, undated; another Polish copy of the above excerpt, made on 12 July 1807, pp. 196-203.

 
  View the folder 
102 980 Blood libel materials [V.4] circa 1890s
  

75183-75206
Notebook containing copied, translated documents, Russian, 40 pp.:
a) Translation from a Polish book by the priest Pikulski, Złość żydowska (Jewish Malice), published in Lemberg (Lvov), pp. 1-7, 25-36.

b) Excerpt from a book of Talmud stories, 1794, p. 8

c) Passages from Jewish books, excerpted by the priest Pazdzierski, translated from the Polish into Russian, pp. 9-15

d) List of 48 Jewish and Christian prisoners arrested in connection with the Velizh trial, Russian, pp. 16-24

e) Two letters to the Governor of Grodno: from the Minister of Education, Count Golitzin (Golitsyn), 6 March 1817, and from Governor General of St. Petersburg Sergey Vyazmitinov, 30 March 1817, about the annulment of the Velizh blood libel.

 
  View the folder 
102 981a Regulating Jewish emigration [V.5] 1890
  

75207-75214
Anonymous circulars addressed "to the Jewish intelligentsia." Copy with addenda, Russian, 8 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 981b Die Bildung einer jüdischen Fraktion [V.6] 1906
  

75214-75239
Proposal for establishing Jewish caucuses in European parliaments, by Simon Bernfeld. Copy, German, 25 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 982 Committee to Publish Blood Libel Materials [V.7] 1920
  

75240-75371
Minutes of meetings during 1919 and 1920, Russian, 133 pp. Minutes of the first meeting, one sheet from the second, and the last two sessions are missing.

 
  View the folder 
102 983 Grodno and Velizh trials [V.8] circa 1920
  

75372-75438
Typescript copies of records from the Grodno (1816) and Velizh (1823) blood libel investigations, Russian, copies, 65 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 984 Publications of the Archeographic Commissions [V.9] undated, 1902
  

75439-75493
Excerpts from the Vilna, Kiev, and Imperial Archaeographic Commissions of numerous policies and regulations related to Jews in the Russian Empire. Assembled by Dubnow, text and prefatory page, Russian, 93 pp.
Supplements:
a) two notes by Dubnow regarding documents in the Vilna Archives
b) copy of a document from a Shloyme b. Mordechai of 1586
c) a letter from Yaakov Hirshovsky of Vilna, 26 February 1902, about the Jewish statutes, Russian, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 985a Last Years of the Commonwealth (Posledniye gody Rechi Pospolitoy, Rus: Последние годы Речи Посполитой) [V.10] undated
  

75494-75505
Excerpts prepared by Dubnow from the 1870 book by N. I. Kostomarov, Russian, 8 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 985b Excerpts from Russian periodicals [V.11] undated, 1891-1892
  

75506-75517
a) Excerpts from Istoricheskii Vestnik, 1882-1890 and Russkii Arkhiv, 1864-1873. List made in Rostov-na-Donu.

b) List of excerpts from Kievskaya Starina, 1882.

 
  View the folder 
102 985c Neueste Weltkunde (periodical) [V.12] 1798
  

75518-75519
Volume I no. 1, German, 4 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 985e Program of the the Jewish Democratic Group [V.14] 1905
  

75520-75522
St. Petersburg, February 1905. Copy, Russian, 3 pp. folio, with annotation and notes by Dubnow.

 
  View the folder 
102 985f Correspondence of Nahum Sokolow [V.15] 1906
  

75523A-75523H
Letters to Y. L. Goldberg, to Heinrich Rosenbaum in Bucharest (copy), and to an unidentified correspondent, dealing with his work on the history of Jewish emancipation in Western Europe and Jewish representations in parliaments. Hebrew and German, 10 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 986a Jewish Education in St. Petersburg [V.16] undated, 1907
  

75524-75532
a) Proposal for establishing a Jewish religious institute in St. Petersburg, 4 pp. typescript, Russian.

b) Minutes of three meetings of the Pedagogic Council of the Baron Guenzburg Higher Courses in Oriental Studies, St. Petersburg, 1911, 3 pp. typescript, Russian.

c) Program of the Baron Guenzburg Higher Courses in Oriental Studies, 1907, 2 pp. typescript, Russian.

 
  View the folder 
102 986b Role of the Administration in Deporting Jews (Rol Administratsii v Vyseleniyah Evreev, Rus: Роль Администрации в Выселениях Евреев) [V.17] undated
  

75533-75543
Report on the role of the government in deporting Jews in 1914-1915, Russian typescript, 22 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 986c Jewish expropriators in Yekaterinoslav [V.18] 1907-1911
  

75544-75550
a) Compilation of reports on executions of Jews in Yekaterinoslav jails, Russian, typescript, 2 pp.

b) Letter from the Yekaterinoslav Police Chief to the rabbi, 20 November 1908.

c) Letter to the rabbi regarding burial of expropriators, 16 December 1907. Russian, 4 pp.

d) Envelope from B.Y. Toporovsky, who sent the above documents to Dubnow, postmarked 31 May 1911.

 
  View the folder 
102 986d World War I [V.19] 1914-1915
  

75551-75558
a) Translation of a report by Georg Brandes on the situation in the war zone on the eastern front, from the Danish newspaper Politiken, 26 October 1914. Russian, typescript, 6 pp.

b) Translation of a description of hardships from a 13 year-old girl in 1915, Russian, typescript, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 987a The disturbances of 1918 [V.20] undated
  

75559-75563
a) Report on atrocities by Polish legionnaires, Russian, 3 pp.

b) Report by Y. Kopelovitsh about the Polish legionnaires in Staryye Dorogi, Russian, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 987b Archives of the Justice Ministry [V.21] 1901
  

75564-75585
Excerpts assembled by Dubnow from various documents prepared by the Archeographic Commission (see folder 984). Primarily about the Vilna kehilla and its trial, 1799-1800, also the Jewish delegation to St. Petersburg in 1798. Russian, pp. numbered 125-160.

 
  View the folder 
102 987c Blood libel materials [V.22] 1883
  

Excerpts from Zur Geschichte der Blutbeschuldigungen gegen die Juden im Mittelalter und in der Neuzeit (1171-1883), by Dr. M Friedlander, 3rd edition, 1883, Vienna. German, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 988a St. Petersburg residency permission [V.23] undated
  

75588
Photograph of a document granting permission for Rachel Segal to remain in the city in order to prepare for baptism, 14 February 1893.

 
  View the folder 
102 988b Haskomes for a Talmud published in Lite [V.24] 1783
  

75589-75590
Page of haskomes (approbations or recommendations from rabbis for published works) torn out of a volume of gemara from a set first printed in 1783 by Johann Anton Krieger in Novi Dvor. Hebrew, 1 p., envelope postmarked 8 June 1904, Ryazan (see folder 1032).

 
  View the folder 
102 988c Bukharian ketubah [V.25] 1862
  

76120
Ketubah for Avraham Hayim son of Pinhas and Avigayl daughter of Mula Aliz Badal, Bukhara, 10 Adar 5522, Hebrew square lettering, 1 p.

 
  View the folder 
102 988e Text of a court oath [V.27] 1844
  

75591
Jewish court oath and exhortation by the beit din to respect the sanctity of oaths, with various signatures. Yiddish in Cyrillic transcription, dated 14 July, 1 p.

 
  View the folder 
102 988f Appeal for folksongs [V.28] 1898
  

75592
by S. Ginzburg and P. Marek, St. Petersburg, Russian, 1 p.

 
  View the folder 
102 988g Clippings from Istoricheskii Vestnik [V.29] undated
  

75593-75611
Excerpts of documents from the Russian archive dated 1865-1887, 17 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 989 Clippings from Hamelitz [V.30] 1892-1894, 1898
  

75612-75621
a) Text of a gravestone, dated Thursday, 17 Iyar 5507 (1747), clipping undated

b) Text of an elegy for the martyrs of Zaslav, from "Kedoshei Zaslav" by Yosef Kantortshik, 1892 no. 195

c) "Kedoshei Zaslav" by Yosef Kantortshik continued, 1892 no. 195 and 198

d) "R' Matisyahu Delakrut" by Aharon Kaminka, 1893 no. 234

e) Poetic text from the pinkas of the Slonim Bikur Holim, about the fast commemorating the events of June 1764; note from Lvov about the victims Hayim and Yehoshua Reytsis, 1894 no. 143

f) Chronicles of Jews from the Horodno area for the year 5524 (1764) by Sh. Viner, 1894 no. 148

g) "Yom Hazikaron," on Vilna history by Hillel Shteynshnayder, 1894 no. 186 and 188

h) Excerpts from the chronicles of Jewish events in Volhynia, by Yehiel Zatulovsky, 1898 no. 130

 
  View the folder 
102 990a Yiddish and Hebrew newspaper clippings [V.31] 1906
  

75622-75627
From:
a) Der Veg, 21 June, about economic terror

b) Der Veg, 28 July, a letter from L. Laufman about anarchism

c) Der Fraynd, August, about Murafa in Podolia Province

d) Ha'zman, 14 July, telegram from a former member of the Duma from Wyborg

e) Ha'zman, 10 June, about Bialystok pogrom

f) Fraynd, about the martyrs of Pavoloch

 
  View the folder 
102 990b Russian newspaper clippings [V.32] 1890-1921
  

75628-75633
Eight clippings about the pogrom in Niezhin area, peasant unrest, Jewish life in Russia, anti-religious propaganda, and other topics.

 
  View the folder 
102 991a Clippings from Voskhod [V.33] 1903
  

75634-75635
From issues no. 51 and 52, documents about Jews in Chernigov and Brest Litovsk dating from 1648 and 1654. Russian, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 991b Review of Yevreyskaya Starina (Jewish Antiquity) [V.34] 1919
  

75636-75637
Review of collected issues vol. X, for 1917-1918. Russian, off-print, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
Return to the Top of Page
 

Series VI: Literaria and Rabbinica, 1643-1938

38 folders
Scope and Content:

This series contains correspondence with and about notable rabbinical figures, mainly from the territory of Poland and Belarus; excerpts, manuscripts, and published editions of rabbinic works, especially responsa; biographic and genealogical excerpts; literary manuscripts; and materials relating to the following subjects: blood libels and antisemitism in Russia, organized Jewish political and cultural activity, various historical documents, and various writings and manuscripts by Dubnow. Only folders through 995 were included in Chaim Borodiansky's inventory. Subsequent folders contain items recovered and reunited with the collection after 1947. These materials include Hasidiana and books from Dubnow's library. Many items in this series were featured in a YIVO exhibit on Dubnow in 1961.

BoxFolderTitleDate
102 992 Development of Polish rabbinate [VI.1] 1894-1895
  

75638-75656
Letters from R' Yosef Levinshteyn (Joseph Lewenstein) of Serock to Dubnow, containing histories of leading rabbis in Poland, including R' Moshe Halevy Minz, the Maharshal (R' Shlomo Luria) and his students, and the Rema (R' Moshe Isserlis); early Hasidic leaders such as R' Shmelke of Nikolsburg, R' Levi Yitzhak of Ryczywół, R' Yaakov Yitzhak Halevi Horowitz, R' David of Makow, and others; the martyrs of Lublin from 1636, and R' Nahman Adler; and others. 11 letters, Hebrew.

 
  View the folder 
102 993a Vikuah mayim hayim [VI.2] undated
  

75657-75664
by R' Hayim b. Bezalel, Amsterdam, 5472 (1712). Copy of introduction, Hebrew, 8 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 993b Development of Polish rabbinate [VI.3] 1895
  

75665-75669
Letter from Yaakov Shapiro of Mezritch (Międzyrzec) about the progression of rabbis and the rabbinic institution starting in 17th century Poland, with reference to various religious books, 10 Elul 5655. Hebrew, 5 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 993c Ir David [VI.4] undated
  

75670-75677
by R' David of Lida. Excerpts from the year 1680-1681, about the pogrom in Lvov of 5424 (1664) and the names of the rabbis of that time, copied by Meyer Itkin of Kostyukovichi, Mohilev Gubernia, in a Hebrew letter to Dubnow, 8 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 994a Panim me'irot [VI.5] undated
  

75678-75679
Responsa by R' Meyer b. Yitshak of Szydlowce, Amsterdam, 5475 (1715), two volumes. Excerpts and other notes, Hebrew, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 994b Genealogical information of the Margolis family [VI.6] undated
  

75680-75681
Copied from a manuscript by R' Tzvi-Hirsh Margolis, dated 5568 (1808), sent to Dubnow by Dr. Chazanowicz with a notation by the copyist, Yosef Melnik, Hebrew, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 994c Sefer refuot, hanikra ezer yisrael [VI.7] 1790
  

75682
Copy of the approval by the Rabbi of Maciejow, R' Shmuel b. Hayim Lanzer, Poryck, 5550 (1790). Hebrew, 1 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 994d Warning about misrepresenting the Vilna Gaon [VI.8] undated
  

75683-75684
Public notice from Vilna kahal officials about misuse of the quotations and writings of the Vilna Gaon, published 19 Kislev 5458 (8 December 1797) and apparently reprinted at the end of the calendar published in Vilna for the year 5560 (1879-1880). Copied and sent to Dubnow by Dr. Chazanowicz, Hebrew, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 994e Hinterlassene deutsche Schriften eines polnischen Juden [VI.9] undated
  

75685-75688
A copy of the biographical preface from the collected works of Louis Meyer, Berlin, 1817, and a copy of a poem in Hebrew. German and Hebrew, 4 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 994f R' Shlomo of Lublin [VI.10] 1893
  

75689-75690
Letter from Feivel Frenkel of Kiev, discussing R' Shlomo b. Yehuda of Lublin d. 1591, teacher of R' Yoel Sirkes, whose grandfather, R' Shlomo, would have been a contemporary of R' Yaakov Pollack and is described along with his son R' Yehuda in Shalshelet ha-Kabbalah. 24 Tammuz 5653, Hebrew, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
102 994g Takanot mi-shalosh kehillot [VI.11] undated
  

75691-75694
Excerpts from the "Statutes of the Three Kehillot," of Altona, Hamburg and Wandsbeck, dated 5475 (1715). Copied by Yaakov Hirshovsky, Vilna, from the manuscript in the Strashun Library. Hebrew and Yiddish, 7 pp.

 
  View the folder 
BoxFolderTitleDate
103 995a R' Azriel Leib Rakowsky [VI.12] 1880
  

75695-75696
Commentary on Masechet Zevachim by R' Rakowsky of Plock, found in a Gemara belonging to Bentsion Dubnov (Simon Dubnow's grandfather) by Dubnow's brother Zev-Wolf. Hebrew, 2 pp.

 
  View the folder 
103 995b Appeal from the Vilna Kahal [VI.13] 1831
  

75697
on behalf of two traveling brothers, trained as doctor and apothecary respectively, to provide them with financial support or a position. Issued by the beit din and kehilla of Vilna, with signatures and a seal, 21 Kislev 5592, original, 1 p.

 
  View the folder 
103 995c "Even nezer: shir ha-shirim le-shlomo shel malchut" [VI.14] 1896
  

75698-75710
Invocation in honor of the crowning of the Tsar Nicholas, by Menahem Nahum Litinsky of Mohilev-Podolsk, in the form of a drama, Hebrew, 12 pp. Accompanied by a letter in Hebrew from Litinsky, dated 10 Tamuz 5656, about printing this song as a present to the Emperor, with a remark by Dubnow: "I advised the writer not to commit such a folly," 1 p.

 
  View the folder 
103 995d "Todah ha-ba'ah le-acharei zman" (Thanks That Came Too Late) [VI.15] undated, 1878
  

75711-75714
Story by Yehudah Leib Gordon, composed in 1878, Hebrew, 3 pp. One of several copies of Gordon manuscripts which were not printed because of the censors. Accompanied by a letter from Yehuda Bohuslavsky of Nikolayev about the manuscript.

 
  View the folder 
103 996 Teater fun khsidim 1843
  

75715-75762
A play in 3 separate acts, performed in Lemberg (Lvov), 1839-1843. Introduction in Hebrew, dedicated to Shlomo Hirts of Zamosc (Shloyme Ettinger). Yiddish, 46 pp.
Title page contains stamps of Dubnow's library and the YIVO Archive.

 
  View the folder 
103 997 Lubavitch Responsa circa 1820-1829
  

75763-75815
Handwritten book containing responsa of Liady and Lubavitch Rebbes and the rabbis of the surrounding areas (Bikhov, Homel, Mstislavl, and others).

 
  View the folder 
103 998 Sefer beit Aharon 1873
  

75816-75969
Manuscript in codex form containing letters and teachings of R' Aharon b. Asher of Karlin and other Hasidic rabbis. Notes and stamps indicate the manuscript was bound in Łuck, sent to the YIVO Archives in Vilna by A. Federman, and sent to Dubnow from YIVO.

 
  View the folder 
103 999 "Sihot ha-Ran ve-sippurim me-R' Nahman mi-Bratslav" 1826
  

75970-76034
Bratslaver homilies and stories, manuscript, 5586 (1825), sent to Dubnow by Yaakov Shapiro of Mezritch (Międzyrzec), Nissan 5651 (April 1891). Contains Dubnow's library stamp and annotations; numbered "Hasidiana No. 9" and "VII.8"

 
  View the folder 
103 1000 Muniments 1643-1872
  

76035-76107
Chain of title for a property on Rudnicki Street, 1643-1802, 17 documents (numbered 1-18, #9 missing) in Polish and Latin.
Also, six documents regarding properties in Warsaw and Nowy Dwor belonging to the couple Leib (Ludwik) Feigin and Braindl (Branisława) Mühlrad Feigin, 1848-1872, in Russian and Polish.

 
  View the folder 
103 1001a Blood libels in Mezritch (Międzyrzec) and Telzundated, 1892
  

76108-76119, 76122
Chronicle of the blood libel in Mezritch (Międzyrzec) in the year 5576 (1815-1816), sent by Yaakov Shapiro, 5652 (1892), Hebrew, 24 pp.
Copy of a letter about the blood libel in Telz (Telšiai) in 1827, undated, Hebrew, 1 p.

 
  View the folder 
103 1001b Receipt for toll duty paid by a Jew 1849
  

76121
Warsaw

 
  View the folder 
103 1002 Oskar Gruzenberg 1890
  

76123-76140
Correspondence and enclosed newspaper clippings about anti-Jewish statements made by officials in Mstislavl.

 
  View the folder 
103 1003 Writings on blood libels 1882, 1913-1914
  

76141-76146
Typescript draft of an article by Dubnow about blood libels "Sources of Ritual Lies", written in connection with the Beilis trial in 1913, printed in Den' (The Day), 1914
Also a circular by I.I. Lutostansky about his book on blood libels, 1882.

 
  View the folder 
103 1004 Odessa OPE "Kulturkampf" 1901-1902
  

76147-76223
Correspondence and memoranda related to the debate over establishing a national Jewish school network in Russia.
Includes letters from F. Lander, secretary of the Odessa branch, to Dubnow, about initiating teacher training courses, and Dubnow's suggestion about reforming the program in line with the spirit of the Jewish schools.

 
  View the folder 
103 1005 Kishinev Pogrom 1903
  

76224-76243
Correspondence and drafts discussing the Kishinev pogrom, including: a circular from Agudat Soferim Ivri'im (The Union of Hebrew Writers) calling on Hebrew writers to promote Jewish self-defense and a national conference in response to Kishinev; drafts by Dubnow of a letter from L. Tolstoy, and an article in Voskhod confiscated by the censor; a letter to M. Dizengoff.

 
  View the folder 
103 1006 Declaration on behalf of Russian Jewry 1915
  

76244-76248
Drafts of a declaration about the patriotic duty of Jews in wartime and the hopes of achieving equality, with notes and editorial comments by Dubnow.

 
  View the folder 
103 1007 Zurich Conference on Jewish Rights 1927
  

76249-76290
Materials include correspondence, a speech by Dubnow, reports, dispatches by the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, press reports, and newspaper clippings. In Yiddish, German, Russian, and English.

 
  View the folder 
103 1008 Shalom Schwarzbard trial 1927
  

76291-76299
Clippings and press statements, in German, Russian, and Yiddish.

 
  View the folder 
BoxFolderTitleDate
104 1009 Jesus of Nazareth from a Jewish point of view 1899-1901
  

76300-76308
Enquiry and questionnaire from Funk and Wagnall publishers about Jesus, based on a work by Kaufmann Kohler. Correspondence in English, Dubnow's responses and annotations in Russian.

 
  View the folder 
104 1010 Avraham Leib Markus of Vilki undated
  

76309-76316
Manuscript fragment, signed Avraham Yehuda-Leib b. Mordechi Markus of Vilki, about the conflict with the town's owner Zabiela, 1813-1827. Hebrew, possibly original, 8 pp. See Historishe shriftn vol. 3, pp. 780-786.

 
  View the folder 
104 1011 Miscellaneous 1895-1930
  

76317-76332
Response to birthday wishes, 1930, in Hebrew and Yiddish; copy of report by Max Lilienthal about his trip through the Pale of Settlement (see folder 942); several other items including a partial inventory of Rabbinica items; invitations to events featuring Dubnow, 1902, 1914; original envelopes and folders from Dubnow's papers; calendar clipping for 30 May 1895.

 
  View the folder 
104 1012 Megilat Sedarim Lehitaneg 1884
  

76333-76373
A literary debate between a Talmudist, a Kabbalist, and a maskil by R' Judah b. Mordechai Halevy Hurwitz, originally printed in Prague, 5551-5552 (1791-1792). This copy published in Warsaw, contains annotations inserted by Dubnow.

 
  View the folder 
104 1013 Books from Dubnow's library 1895-1899
  

76374-76567
Zikhronotai (My Memoirs) by Isaac Hirsch Weiss, Warsaw 5655 (1895), and Be'er Yitzhak (Isaac's Well) by David Ber Natansohn, Warsaw, 1899, with Dubnow's marginalia. The two books were bought in December 1950 from the bookstore of Veri Fisher who had acquired it from Dr. Louis Levin, Breslau.

 
  View the folder 
104 1014 Dubnow's memoirs 1932-1933
  

76568-76596
Clippings of chapters published in Folksblat, Der Tog and Di Tsukunft, and Sh. Niger's articles about the memoirs.

 
  View the folder 
104 1015 Vsemirnaya Istoriya Evreyskogo Naroda (World History of the Jewish People) 1930s
  

76597-76760
Russian typescript of volume III, with edits by Dubnow.

 
  View the folder 
104 1016 Weltgeschichte des jüdischen Volkes (World History of the Jewish People) 1936
  

76761-77032
Proofs of the German edition of volume I, with notes from Dubnow.

 
  View the folder 
104 1017 Various writings by Dubnow 1927-1938
  

77033-77080
Notes, correspondence, speeches, and articles on: the 1927 Zurich Conference on Jewish Rights; national liberation movements; World Jewish Congress in the years 1935-1938; Soviet Russia and the Jews, 1928; post-script to an epilogue, late 1938, Russian; excerpt from Divrei Yimei Am Olam. In Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian.

 
  View the folder 
Return to the Top of Page
 

Series VII: Correspondence, 1885-1932

16 folders
Arrangement:

Correspondence is arranged alphabetically in Yiddish.

Scope and Content:

This subseries consists of correspondence written to Dubnow. A large portion of the series consists of letters from zamlers (collectors) in the 1890s who participated in the search for Jewish historical materials. The correspondence is replete with discussions about documents, their location, availability, etc. The other letters in this series are from fellow historians and scholars, including Simha Assaf, Mathias Bersohn, Martin Buber, Joseph Chazanowicz, Bernhard Friedberg, Israel Friedlander, Bernard Naftali Friedman, Yuli Gessen, Shmuel Abba Horodezky, Moses Schorr, Abraham Schwadron (Avraham Sharon), Pinhas Turberg, and Maxim Vinaver. The number of letters is provided in parentheses.

BoxFolderTitleDate
104 1018 Original foldersundated, 1905
  

77081-77087
Parts of Dubnow's original correspondence folders. In Russian and Hebrew.

 
  View the folder 
104 1019 Aleph א 1894-1896, 1924, 1931
  

77088-77102
Shmuel Alexandrovich, Bobruisk (1), 5655 (1895)
Vitali A. Olkin, Riga (1), 1894
Studenten-Verein Anatolica, Riga (1), 1894
Yitzhak Antonovski, Odessa (1), 5656 (1896)
Simha Assaf, Jerusalem (4), 5684-5685, 5691 (1924, 1931)

 
  View the folder 
104 1020 Beys ב 1891-1900, 1931
  

77103-77139
Barukh Bobis, (1), 1893
Martin Buber, Heppenheim (1), 1931
Ben-Tsion Baranov, (1), 1891
A. B. Bialostocki, Międzyrzec (2), 1891
Mendel Biber, Ostrog (4), 1894
Shmaryahu Beylin, Slutsk (4), 1893-1897
Shakhne-Meyer Bernshteyn, Ozorkow (2), 1892
Shlomo Bernstein, Keidan (1)
Mathias Bersohn, Warsaw (5), 1895
A. Bramson, (3), and documents, 1899-1900

 
  View the folder 
104 1021 Gimel ג 1892-1927
  

77140-77220
Eliyahu ha-Levi Gabrielev, Nesvizh (1), 1893
Shimon Goldlast, Łomża (1), 5652 (1892)
Simha Kopshtik, Belaya Tserkov (1), 1895
Hirsh-Leib Goldenberg, Boguslav (1)
Yitzhak-Meyer Granetman, Pinczow (1)
Nahum Grinhauz, Trakiai (1), 5654 (1894) and Dubnow's response
Shakhne Grinfeld, Baranovka (2), 5654 (1894)
Grinfeld/"hareri ba-sadeh", (2), 1901
Yuli Gessen, (13), 1901-1902
Yaakov Girshovsky (Hirshovsky), Vilna (10), 1895-1896
L. Gotz, Gorodok (3), 1893-1894
Ilya Galant, Nyezhin (4), Kiev (2), 1896-1927

 
  View the folder 
104 1022 Gimel-Hey ד-ה 1892-1931
  

77221-77287
Yosef-Hayim Dorozhko, (1)
A. Druyanov, Odessa (1), 1902
M. Halperin, Kiev (1), 1895
Shmuel Abba Horodezky, Berdichev (3), Berlin (2), 1895-1900, 1931
Isser Hutin, Rostov-Don (2), 1925
A. Sh. Hirshberg, Bialystok (1), 1897
Yaakov Hirshovsky, Vilna (24), 1892-1895

 
  View the folder 
BoxFolderTitleDate
105 1023 Vov ו 1893-1896, 1931
  

77288-77298
Zev-Wolf Vaynshteyn, Kishinev (1), 1894
Yehudah-Leib Vaysman, Lipovets (2), 1893-1896
Shmuel-Tzvi Veltsman, Kalisz (3), 5654 (1894)
M. Wilensky, Berlin (1), 1931

 
  View the folder 
105 1024 Vov ו 1921-1925
  

77299-77345
Correspondence between Dubnow and Maxim Vinaver, (20)

 
  View the folder 
105 1025 Zayin-Khes ז-ח 1892-1897
  

77346-77364
D. Z. Zakharin, Odessa (1), 1896
A. Zaks, Lyubashevka (1)
Samuel Silberstein, Warsaw (1), 1893, also a copy of a letter from Silberstein to A. E. Landau
Hayim Ziskind, Berdichev (1), 1897
N. Zlatkin, Rostov-Don (2), 1892
M. Khazan, Polonaya (2), 1894
Shalom Leyzerovich Kharif, Zaslav (1)

 
  View the folder 
105 1026 Khes-Khaf ח-כ 1885-1900, 1931
  

77365-77396
Avraham Taub, Temesvár (Timişoara) (1), 1931
V. Turbovits, Krozh (1), 1894
Pinhas ha-Kohen Turberg, Jedwabne (5), 1894-1895
Sholem Yampolsky, Revotsk (1), 1895
Hirsh Yofe, Homel (4), 1892-1896
B. Chawkin, Łódź (1), 1892
Dr. Joseph Chazanowicz, (10), 1885-1900

 
  View the folder 
105 1027 Lamed-Mem ל-מ 1888-1898
  

77397-77416
A. Leon (1), 1892
Menahem Nahum Litinsky, Mohilev Podolski (2), 1892
Yisrael Levi, St. Petersburg (3), 1889-1890
Yitzhak-Meyer Levinshteyn, Koszyce (1), 5654 (1894)
Aharon Levit, Kishinev (1)
Yaakov Marshak, Warsaw (1) 1896
Hayim Wolf Margolis, Dubno (2), 1893-1894
Mendel Bik, Ostrog (2), 1894, 1900
Aharon-Moshe Mazurski, Ruzhany (1), 1893

 
  View the folder 
105 1028 Nun-Ayin נ-ע 1892-1899, 1928
  

77417-77453
Shlomo Nisenbaum, Lublin (1), 1899
Moshe Nashburg, Ovruch (1), 1893
Yitzhak Nisenbaum, Bialystok (1), 1895
Isser Nastoshkin, Belaya Tserkov (1), 1895
Shimon M. Stanislavsky, Yekaterinoslav (2), 1894
B. Segall, Zhagare (Žagarė) (2), 1894
L. N. Etingen, Velizh (1), 1892
Moshe Erlich, Lublin (4), 1928

 
  View the folder 
105 1029 Pey-Fey פ-פֿ 1891-1898, 1931
  

77454-77490
Shmuel Figit, Yekaterinoslav (1), 1896
D. Pinsker, Odessa (1), 1893
N. D. Pevzner, Homel (Gomel) (1), 1893
Pinhas Pesis, Kovel (1), 1892
Aryeh Leib Feinstein, Brest Litovsk (Brisk)(1), 1892
Yosef Zundel Finkelshteyn, Ponevezh (1), 1892
Hayim Dov-Berish Fridberg, Antwerp (3), 1931
L. Fridland, St. Petersburg (1), 1893
Israel Friedlander, Berlin (2), 1898
Bernard A. Fridman, Birzh (5), 1891-1892

 
  View the folder 
105 1030 Kuf ק 1888-1898
  

77491-77516
Shaul Kazarnovsky, Lyady (2), 1893
Moshe Kalmansohn, Kiev (2), 1888-1889
Yosef Kantortshik, Letichiv (1), 1896
Ben-Tsion Katz, Daugi (1), 1894
A. Kraushar, Warsaw (1), 1896
Hirsh Krasnik, Petropavlovsk (1), 1898
Koszycki, Ostrów (1), 1891
Fadya M. Kreynin, Kritshev (Krichëv)(1), 1895
M. Kreynin, Moscow (2), 1894

 
  View the folder 
105 1031 Resh ר 1892-1903, 1931
  

77517-77527
M. Rabinovich, Jerusalem (1), 5691 (1931)
Shaul B. Rabinovich, Pinsk (1), 1903
Shalom Rabinovich (Sholem Aleichem), Odessa (1), 1892
A. R. Rosenthal, Vilna (1), 1895
Dov-Yehudah Raycin, Propoisk (2), 1892
Ben-Tsion Voronel, Mala Pereshchepina (1), 1892
Emanuel Ringelblum, Warsaw (1)

 
  View the folder 
105 1032 Shin ש 1891-1910, 1928-1932
  

77528-77558
Dr. Moshe Schorr, Vienna (3), 1900
Avraham Schwadron, Jerusalem (2), 1928-1932
Simha Scherzer, Shadova (1), 1931
S. L. Shneyerson, Warsaw (3), 1890-1891, St. Petersburg (1), 1893
Yaakov Shapiro, Mezritch (Międzyrzec) (4), 1892-1893
Sheffer, Ryazan (1), 1904
L. Shklar, Yekaterinoslav (1), 1910
L. Shulman, Kiev (1), 1893

 
  View the folder 
105 1033 Unidentified lettersundated, 1892, 1899
  

77559-77566
Letter from Berish? from Bar, 1892, about how the Bar pinkas came to be removed to Kiev and then St. Petersburg; biography of R' Israel Dov of Veledniki (Vlednik); letter from Yaakov Palay? of Dobrovelichkovka; book list with prices, Hebrew, 1888 or later; clipping from Hamelitz, 29 December 1899, which discusses the pinkas of Khoroshch (Choroszcz).

 
  View the folder 
Return to the Top of Page