Guide to the Records of the Industrial Removal Office, undated, 1899-1922


Processed by Various Staff Members

American Jewish Historical Society

Center for Jewish History

15 West 16th Street

New York, N.Y. 10011

Phone: (212) 294-6160



© 2019  American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY. All Rights Reserved.
Machine-readable finding aid created by Adina Anflick as MS Word. 2002. Electronic finding aid converted to EAD 2.0 by Tanya Elder. May 2003. Description is in English.
September 2003. States and cities updated in Series V and Series X by Tanya Elder. March 2004. Updated to EAD 2002; updated Database note and Historical Note. Renamed IRO5. Added subject headings. May 2005. Finding aid was updated and reconverted in order to match other online finding aids by Dianne Ritchey Oummia. January 2006. Entities removed from EAD finding aid. 20130809 Added link to database

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Industrial Removal Office
Title: Records of the Industrial Removal Office
Dates:undated, 1899-1922
Abstract: The Industrial Removal Office was created as part of the Jewish Agricultural Society to assimilate immigrants into American society, both economically and culturally. It worked to employ all Jewish immigrants. The collection contains administrative and financial records, immigrants' removal records, and correspondence. A database has been constructed to search for persons removed by the Industrial Removal Office.
Languages: The collection is in English and Yiddish.
Quantity: 74.25 linear feet + 1 Oversized folder (115 manuscript boxes, 10 oversized boxes (20.5x17x3), 1 oversized folder)
Identification: I-91
Repository: American Jewish Historical Society
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Historical Note

In 1901, following anti-Semitic decrees by the Romanian government, a large wave of Romanian Jews fled to New York. The Rumanian Committee was quickly formed in New York to distribute the immigrants to other towns where they might find employment. B'nai B'rith lodges in these towns and cities assisted the refugees upon their arrival. The Romanian Committee rapidly evolved into the Industrial Removal Office, which took over the work on a much larger scale and opened its availability to any unemployed Jewish immigrant, regardless of their origin.

The Industrial Removal Office was formally created as part of the Jewish Agricultural Society at the Society's January 24, 1901 Executive Committee meeting. The Society rented a store at 34 Stanton Street in New York and named it "The Industrial Removal Office." The office was later transferred to 174 Second Avenue. The process of procuring work for immigrants was done through traveling agents, who also obtained the cooperation of local Jewish organizations. Local committees, organized primarily by B'nai B'rith, obtained orders for workers and assisted the immigrants on their arrival. The New York bureau noted requests received from the traveling agents and local committees and matched up opportunities from their applicant lists. In the first year of the Industrial Removal Office's existence, nearly 2000 individuals were sent to 250 places throughout the United States.

The philosophy behind the IRO was to assimilate the immigrants into American Society, both economically and culturally. As David Bressler, IRO general manager for sixteen years, noted, the goal was to allow immigrants to find "their own salvation." Local committees were told to regard the arriving immigrant as a newcomer filling a definite place within the community, not as a charity case. The immigrant's work should be carefully chosen to fully use his abilities and closely correspond to his earning powers. Lastly, care should be made to make the immigrant comfortable in his new community. The IRO believed that individuals or families settling in their new lives would serve as magnets for immigrating relatives and friends.

The types of occupations and trades immigrants were placed in varied widely. The records list a total of 390 variations including: carpenters, shoemakers, butchers, blacksmiths, farmers, locksmiths, clerks, machinists, paperhangers, tanners, furriers, harness makers, printers, watchmakers, weavers, and wood carvers. A major success of the IRO was to encourage diverse occupations beyond those in the needletrades.

With the financial panic in 1907 and the ensuing industrial depression, the demand for labor decreased sharply. The IRO counteracted this crisis by sending traveling agents farther away from New York and by increasing its publicity. The result was a broader range of distribution that included the Southern, Rocky Mountain, and Pacific States. This year also marked an administrative autonomy from the auspices of the Jewish Agricultural Society. In 1909, the ongoing industrial depression produced the lowest distribution figures since 1902. Many IRO city offices suspended their operations. David Bressler organized offices in Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle, Spokane, and other agricultural centers that were not as affected by the depression. Two major distribution centers, Philadelphia and Boston, ceased their operations in 1911 and 1914, respectively.

With the onset of World War I, distributing IRO offices had so shrunk that only 3,500 immigrants were placed out of a total of 12,000 applicants. IRO's income also decreased and to maintain morale a bulletin "Distribution" began to be published in July 1914. The IRO preserved its core organization throughout the war. In 1921, with deepened US immigration restrictions, the IRO attempted to place immigrants in Mexico. The project was soon discontinued. IRO formally dissolved in 1922. From 1901 to 1922, the IRO distributed approximately 79,000 individuals throughout the United States and Canada. From 1901 to 1913, IRO distributions represented close to 6 or 7 per cent of the US total immigration figures.


Glazier, Jack. Dispersing the Ghetto: The Relocation of Jewish Immigrants Across America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Joseph, Samuel. History of the Baron de Hirsch Fund: the Americanization of the Jewish Immigrant. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1935.

Chronology of the Industrial Removal Office

1900Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society founded by the Baron de Hirsch Fund and the Jewish Colonization Association to encourage migration from NYC into the interior of the US and agricultural interest/education.
Romanian Relief Committee (RRC), with help of Jewish philanthropists and B'nai Brith lodges, helps large Romanian influx of immigrants find employment.
1901Industrial Removal Office created, taking over the duties of the RRC and applying them on a larger scale with more organization; courtesy of de Hirsch Fund, B'nai Brith, United Hebrew Charities, and other Jewish immigrant groups.
1903United Hebrew Charities and the de Hirsch Fund hire David Bressler as the IRO general manager. Before, Bressler had worked for the Romanian Aid Society and spent the majority of his adult life working with immigrants.
1904IRO hires and sends forth college educated young men to work as "traveling agents" to promote the IRO around the country, investigate employment opportunities, and establish local liaisons and committees.
1905IRO moves New York main office from store space at 34 Stanton St. to 174 2nd Avenue.
1906Congress passes the Galveston Plan, making Galveston, Texas an alternative entry station into the United States, furthering the effort to discourage new Jewish immigrants from settling in the Lower East Side.
1907Jewish Immigration Information Bureau (JIIB) founded as branch of IRO to receive immigrants through Galveston and send them to other communities in the US.
1914Relations between the JIIB and other Jewish organizations deteriorate and Jews are no longer sent through Galveston. Over 10,000 Jews were helped and settled through Galveston by the JIIB.
1917Burnett Immigration Law passed in Congress over President Wilson's 2nd veto; requiring a literacy test for new immigrants. Jewish lobby procures small victory in that literacy test is not applied to those seeking refuge from religious persecution.
David Bressler resigns from position of IRO general manager.
78,995 immigrants resettled by the IRO since 1901, by the end of the year.
1921Congress passes the Quota Act, limiting annual immigration to 3% of given national resident group already living in the United States.
1922Immigration reaches nearly a standstill and IRO activity ceases.
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Scope and Content Note

The records of the Industrial Removal Office document the efforts made on the part of this office and other agencies to assist immigrants arriving and living in New York City. A precious part of this collection is the immigrants' perceptions of their new life and the IRO's work. The complexity of material encompasses administrative, financial, statistical records; small town population and Jewish life conditions surveys; placement and removal records; correspondence of IRO traveling and local agents and potential employers; correspondence of overseas Jewish immigrant organizations and American Jewish aid societies, trade unions, courts, newspapers, and other agencies; correspondence between immigrants and the IRO staff; and correspondence from significant individuals in the IRO, politics, and Jewish social services.

The collection is particularly strong in regards to immigrant removal and placement records, correspondence of IRO staff, other organizations, and major individuals, and IRO financial records. It is less so concerning IRO administrative reports and committee minutes, where several time gaps exist.

Among the research areas available within the IRO material are genealogy, American immigration, Jewish philanthropic agencies, labor, demographic surveys, Jews in small towns in the early 1900s, and the relationship between German Jews and Eastern European Jewish immigrants.

It is recommended that genealogists begin with the ledgers in Series II, and then later research further into additional series.

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The collection has been arranged into eleven series as follows:

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Access and Use

Access Restrictions

The collection is open to all researchers by permission of the Director of Collections and Engagement of the American Jewish Historical Society, except items that are restricted due to their fragility.

Use Restrictions

There may be some restrictions on the use of the collection. For more information, contact
American Jewish Historical Society, Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street, New York, NY 10011

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Related Material

Related materials can be found in the Baron de Hirsch Fund Records, Max James Kohler papers, and the National Committee for the Relief of Sufferers by Russian Massacres Records at AJHS and the Jewish Agricultural Society Records at the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.

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The Industrial Removal Office Collection was donated to the American Jewish Historical Society in 1949 as part of the Baron de Hirsch Fund Records.

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Digitization Note

Box 15 Folders 2 and 5, Box 16 Folders 1 and 4, and Box 17 Folders 1, 3, 5 and 8 have been digitized as part of an ongoing digitization-on-demand program at the Center for Jewish History.

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Preferred Citation

Published citations should take the following form:
Identification of item, date (if known); Records of the Industrial Removal Office; I-91; box number; folder number; American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY.

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A database indexing immigrants' names recorded in ledgers found in Series II: Removal Records, has been completed and is available online. PLEASE NOTE: By using this link you will be exiting the current Industrial Removal Office finding aid.

The names recorded in the database are listed in ledgers that are located in Box 6 through Box 12 of the collection. Please note that additional material concerning individual immigrants may also be found in other areas of the collection. The database provides the location of the immigrant's information in the ledger. The actual ledger record may include the following information: New York address, new destination, date of distribution, name and age of the wife and children, immigrant's occupation, country of birth, length of time in the U.S., present wages, IRO statistics, and status after his or her new residence.

Please note that the name indexing for this database was taken from handwritten entries, many of which were unclear. It is recommended that one search under various alternative spellings and possible incorrect letters of a name. For instance, one may wish to search for the last name Katzin as Kalzin or Kalzim.

The American Jewish Historical Society is deeply grateful for the support provided by the Estelle Guzik, the Jewish Genealogy Society of New York, and the efforts of the following volunteers: Ronni Beer, Esther Brownstein, Bernard Cedar, Claire Cohen, Jacob Cohen, Jane Foss, Barbara Frank, Bobby Furst, Shirley Gerstel, Ava Gorkin, Estelle Guzick, Sheila Heitner, Eden Joachim, Phyllis Kramer, Ken Kravitz, Jeffrey Levin, Florette Lynn, Susan Mann, Robin Newman, Mark Polisar, Ann Rabinowitz, Carol Raspler, Renee Resky, Toby Sanchez, Claudia Schellenberg, Charlene Segot, Doug Seidman, Rebecca Simmons, Greta Tedoff, Bruce Zatz, Dorothy Zenilman, and Paula Zieselman.

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Access Points

Click on a subject to search that term in the Center's catalog. Return to the Top of Page

Container List

The following section contains a detailed listing of the materials in the collection.

Click the box in the request column to open the form that allows you to request a box for onsite viewing in the reading room at the Center for Jewish History, New York, NY.


Series I: Organizational Records, (1903-1922)

The predominant language of the series is English.
Boxes 1-5.

The records are divided into administrative and financial records, in original order.

Scope and Content:

This series contains administrative and financial records. Administrative records consist of meeting minutes of the Board, Executive Committee, and Removal Committee; office correspondence; annual reports from 1910 and 1913; monthly reports, statistics, and bulletins, a publication of David Bressler's presentation to the 1910 National Conference of Jewish Charities; a draft of his 1902 presentation report; reports on immigration restriction; studies conducted on removals and the agency's outlook; and memorabilia such as IRO business, referral, and luggage cards. Although there is a wide representation of documents, they include portions of various years. The financial records consist of detailed balance sheets, investments sheets, audits, and comparison cost figures. Three ledgers finish the series: petty cash covering June 1903 to December 1906; receipts and disbursements covering April 1904 to September 1911; and a financial record of agencies, indexed by town name, that includes cost and number of tickets by immigrants' names.

Administrative Records, undated, 1901-1919

11Board of Directors Minutes(1903, 1907)request_box
12Executive Committee Minutes(1907)request_box
13Removal Committee Minutes(1903-1917)request_box
14Annual Reports(1910, 1913)request_box
15Monthly Reports(1901-1919)request_box
16Monthly Bulletins(Vol. 1, nos. 6,8, December 1914, February 1915; Vol. 2, no. 2, August 1915)request_box
17Studies of Removal (1913)request_box
18"The Removal Work, Including Galveston" (delivered by David M. Bressler before the National Conference of Jewish Charities)(May 17, 1910)request_box
19Miscellaneous papers relating to the IRO and immigrationundatedrequest_box
110Memorabilia (Business cards, I.D. tags)undatedrequest_box
111Routine office correspondenceundatedrequest_box

Financial Records, 1903-1922

22Comparative Per Capita Cost Figures(1909-1922)request_box
23Audits (1915-1918)request_box
24Receipts and Expenditures(1918-September 1922)request_box
26Bank Balances(1907-1922)request_box
3/4 (OVERSIZE)7Removal Work Cash Book(April 1903-September 1911)request_box
3/4 (OVERSIZE)8Office Expenses-Petty Cash Account (1903-1906)request_box
59Financial Records of Agencies (payments to local representatives) (1906)request_box
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Series II: Removal Records,  (1899-1922)

The predominant language of the series is English.
Boxes 6-17.

Box 13 records the permission received or denied in 1905 by local agents for immigrants to travel. It is indexed by town name. Box 14 lists requests for family reunions from the period 1901-1904. This ledger is alphabetized by last name and includes the destination, relatives being requested, Charity providing assistance, and arrival date. Boxes 15 to 17 consist of monthly placement records completed by the local agent from 1904-1914. The amount of placement records is not complete, but offers a large sampling. The placement records are arranged alphabetically by town name and include the name, occupation, quality of work performed, and (if applicable) next destination. The placement records also may contain remarks on individual immigrants by the local agent. Please note: some box and folder numbers differ between the written finding aid and this computerized version. In the written finding aid, files holding records of removals for boxes 15-17 are recorded in numerical order by year (i.e., Box 17, 1910, Folders 1-2; Box 17, 1911, Folders 1-2); actual folders within these boxes use both numerical order by year, and a sequential number of total folders within a single box (i.e., Box 17, 1910, 1911, Folders 1-4). This computerized version of the finding aid reflects the sequential number of total folders within a single box.

Scope and Content:

The series is primarily divided by ledgers into records of removals of persons from location A and records of placement of persons to location B. For instance, a record of removal tracks a single person removed from location A, New York, and placed in location B, San Francisco.

This series is highly valuable for genealogists. Boxes 6 to 12 contain removal ledgers that provide the New York address, new destination, name and age of wife and children, occupation, country of birth, and status after removal. The ledgers are listed chronologically and by Charity providing assistance.

An online name index database has been created to ensure easier access. Portions of this collection have been digitized on demand: Des Moines, IA (cont'd) to Memphis, TN (Box 15 Folder 2); Albany, NY to Fall River, MA (Box 15, Folder 5); Albany, NY to La Crosse, WI (Box 16, Folder 1); Cincinnati, OH (cont'd) to Indianapolis, IN (Box 16, Folder 4); Akron, OH to Grand Rapids, MI (Box 17, Folder 1); Akron, OH to Indianapolis, IN (Box 17, Folder 3); Akron, OH to Gary, IN (Box 17, Folder 5); Columbus, OH (cont'd) to Gary, IN (Box 17, Folder 8).

Record of Removal, #1-43417 (OVERSIZE), 1899-1922

Record of Removal, #1-3468, 1899-1902

61Philadelphia Removals(1899-1902) request_box
6 2Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society(1901-1902) request_box
6 3Rumanian Relief(1901-1902)request_box
64Weiser Inger and Werthheimer(1902)request_box
65Daniel N. Bloomenthal from Baltimore to Woodbine(1902)request_box
66Brotmansville, N.J. (1901-1902)request_box
67Shops of C & G Contr., A. Birer(1901)request_box
68Shops of A, B, & Co., Contr., Ike Albert(1901)request_box
69Shop of H. Bros Contr. I. Bresslauer(1901)request_box
610Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society(1902)request_box

Record of Removal, #3469-8884 (OVERSIZE), 1903-1904

71Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society(1903-1904)request_box
72Philadelphia Removals(1903)request_box
73Carlton Manufacturing Co. "Alliance, NJ" (February-March 1903)request_box
74Rumanian Relief(January 1903-July 1904)request_box

Record of Removal, #8885-15528 (OVERSIZE), undated

81Record of Removal, #8885-15528Unspecifiedrequest_box

Record of Removal, #15529-24366 (OVERSIZE), 1906-1908

91Removal Committee(April 1906-March 1908)request_box
92Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society(April 1906-March 1908)request_box

Record of Removal, #24367-31645 (OVERSIZE), 1908-1911

101Account A.(April 1908-December 1911)request_box
102Account B.(April 1908-December 1911) request_box

Record of Removal, #31646-40938 (OVERSIZE), 1912-1914

111Account A.(January 1912-December 1914)request_box
112Account B.(January 1912-December 1914)request_box

Record of Removal, #40939-43417 (OVERSIZE), 1915-1922

121Account A.(1915-1922)request_box
122Account B.(1915-1922)request_box

Preliminary Removal Record and Family Reunion Cases, 1901-1905

Box TitleDate
13 Preliminary Removal Record, alphabetical listing of places where people were sent to from New York1905
Box TitleDate
14 Family Reunion Cases, alphabetical listing of names of applicants (OVERSIZE)1901-1904

Placement Records from Cities which Persons removed to, 1904-1914

Placement Records from Cities which Persons removed to, 1904-1905

151Albany, NY, 10 pgs. (May 1904-March 1905)request_box
151Allentown, PA, 4 pgs. (June, August, Nov-December 1904)request_box
151Altoona, PA, 3 pgs. (May-June 1904)request_box
151Atlanta, GA, 2 pgs. (August-September 1904)request_box
151Aurora, MO, 1 pg. (January 1905)request_box
151Beatrice, NE, 1 pg. (October 1904)request_box
151Bellaire, OH, 1 pg. (January 1904)request_box
151Birmingham, AL, 4 pgs. (March-April, June, September 1904)request_box
151Boonville, MO, 2 pgs. (December 1904, March 1905)request_box
151Boston, MA, 2 pgs. (January-March 1905)request_box
151Boulder, CO, 2 pgs. (September, December 1904)request_box
151Buffalo, NY, 9 pgs. (June-August, October-December1904, January-March 1905)request_box
151Cedar Rapids, IA, 4 pgs. (October-December 1904, January 1905)request_box
151Chariton, IA, 1 pg. (November 1904)request_box
151Chattanooga, TN, 1 pg. (September 1904)request_box
151Cheyenne, WY, 2 pgs. (September, November 1904)request_box
151Cincinnati, OH, 17 pgs. (March-June, August-December 1904, January, March 1905) request_box
15 1Cleveland, OH, 3 pgs.(December 1904, January, Mar 1905)request_box
151Clinton, IA, 1 pg. (October 1904)request_box
151Clinton, MO, 1 pg. (March 1905)request_box
151Colorado Springs, CO, 2 pgs.(January, September 1905)request_box
151Council Bluffs, IA, 1 pg. (June 1904)request_box
151Cripple Creek, CO, 2 pgs. (January, March 1905)request_box
151Dallas, TX, 1 pg. (March 1905)request_box
151Dayton, OH, 1 pg. (March 1905)request_box
151Demopolis, AL, 1 pg. (September 1904)request_box
151Des Moines, IA, 5 pgs. (March, October-December 1904, January 1905)request_box
152Des Moines, IA, 5 pgs. (cont'd)(March, October-December 1904, January 1905)request_box
152Detroit, MI, 9 pgs. (March, August 1904, January, March 1905)request_box
152Dubuque, IA, 1 pg. (October 1904)request_box
152Elmira, NY, 4 pgs. (August, September 1904, May 1905, undated)request_box
152Fort Wayne, IN, 2 pgs. (October-November 1904)request_box
152Fort Worth, TX, 1 pg. (September 1904)request_box
152Grand Island, NE, 3 pgs. (September, October 1904)request_box
152Greeley, CO, 2 pgs. (September, December 1904)request_box
152Hannibal, MO, 1 pg. (January 1905)request_box
152Harrisburg, PA, 2 pgs. (June, September 1904)request_box
152Hastings, NE, 1 pg. (November 1904)request_box
152Hutchinson, KS, 3 pgs. (December 1904, Jan, March 1905)request_box
152Indianapolis, IN, 2 pgs. (September 1904)request_box
152Jacksonville, FL, 2 pgs. (April, September 1904)request_box
152Joplin, MO, 1 pg. (January 1905)request_box
152Kalamazoo, MI, 1 pg. (October 1904)request_box
152Kansas City, MO, 19 pgs. (Mar-June, August-December 1904, January March 1905)request_box
152Keokuk, IA, 1 pg. (December 1904)request_box
152Lancaster, PA, 4 pgs. (May-June, August 1904)request_box
152Lawrence, KS, 2 pgs. (December 1904, January 1905)request_box
152Leavenworth, KS, 2 pgs. (January, March 1905)request_box
152Lexington, MO, 1 pg. (January 1905)request_box
152Lincoln, NE, 5 pgs. (April, September-November 1904, January 1905)request_box
152Louisiana, MO, 2 pgs. (January 1905)request_box
152Louisville, KY, 3 pgs. (April, August, November 1904)request_box
152Macon, GA, 3 pgs. (June, October 1904, February 1905)request_box
152Marshalltown, IA, 1 pg. (October 1904)request_box
152Memphis, TN, 9 pgs. (April-June, August, October 1904, January March 1905)
  View the folder containing Des Moines, IA (cont'd) to Memphis, TN 
15 3Memphis, TN, 9 pgs. (cont'd)(April-June, August, October 1904, January March 1905)request_box
153Mexico, MO, 1 pg.(January 1905)request_box
153Milwaukee, WI, 15 pgs. (March-June, August-December 1904)request_box
153Minneapolis MN, 7 pgs. (August-December 1904, January-March 1905)request_box
153Mobile, AL, 6 pgs. (May-June, August-September 1904, January 1905)request_box
153Montgomery, AL, 5 pgs. (April-June, August 1904)request_box
153Murray City, OH, 1 pg. (November 1904)request_box
153Muscatine, IA, 1 pg. (October 1904)request_box
153Nebraska City, NE, 1 pg. (March 1905)request_box
153New Orleans, LA, 3 pgs. (April, August 1904, March 1905)request_box
153North Adams, MA, 1 pg.(September 1904)request_box
153North Platte, NE, 1 pg. (October 1904)request_box
153Omaha, NE, 4 pgs. (October-December 1904, January 1905)request_box
153Oskaloosa, IA, 1 pg. (November 1904)request_box
153Ottumwa, IA, 2 pgs. (November,October 1904)request_box
153Pittsburg, KS, 2 pgs. (December 1904, January 1905)request_box
153Portland, ME, 1 pg. (September 1904)request_box
153Pueblo, CO, 1 pg. (December 1904)request_box
153Reading, PA, 3 pgs. (June, September 1904)request_box
153Richmond, VA, 1 pg. (October 1904)request_box
153Rochester, NY(March-June, August-December 1904, January, March 1905)request_box
154Rock Island, IL, 1 pg. (October 1904)request_box
154St. Charles, MO, 2 pgs. (March, April 1904)request_box
154St. Joseph, MO, 3 pgs. (November-December 1904, January 1905)request_box
154St. Louis, MO, 20 pgs. (March-June, August-December 1904, January 1905)request_box
154San Francisco, CA, 3 pgs. (March-April, November 1904)request_box
154Scranton, PA, 4 pgs. (May-June, August-September 1904)request_box
154Sedalia, MO, 1 pg. (December 1904)request_box
154Shreveport, LA, 1 pg. (March 1905)request_box
154Sioux City, IA, 2 pgs. (October-November 1904)request_box
154South Bend, IN, 12 pgs. (March-June, August-November 1904, January, March 1905) request_box
15 4Spokane, WA, 1 pg.(June 1904)request_box
154Springfield, IL, 3 pgs. (August, October-November 1904)request_box
154Streator, IL, 1 pg. (June 1904)request_box
154Syracuse, NY, 2 pgs. (June, September 1904)request_box
154Topeka, KS, 2 pgs. (January, Mar, 1905)request_box
154Tyler, TX, 1 pg. (March 1905)request_box
154Uncasville, CT, 3 pgs. (April-June 1904)request_box
154Uniontown, PA, 2 pgs. (June 1904, January 1905)request_box
154Vicksburg, MS, 1 pg. (June 1904)request_box
154Warren, PA, 1 pg. (April 1904)request_box
154Wheeling, WV, 3 pgs. (June, October 1904)request_box
154Wichita, KS, 3 pgs. (December 1904, January March 1905)request_box
154Wilkes-Barre, PA, 2 pgs. (June, August 1904)request_box
154Wilmington, DE, 1 pg. (April 1904)request_box
154Winona, MN, 1 pg. (June 1904)request_box
154Youngstown, OH, 1 pg. (November 1904)request_box

Placement Records from Cities which Persons Removed to, 1905-1906

155Albany, NY, 7 pgs. (February, April-June, October-November 1905)request_box
155Atlanta, GA, 5 pgs. (April, June-July, October, December 1905)request_box
155Austin, TX, 1 pg. (November 1905)request_box
155Beaumont, TX, 1 pg. (April 1905)request_box
155Birmingham, AL, 6 pgs. (April, June, September, December 1905, March 1906, undated) request_box
155Boulder, CO, 1 pg.(April 1905)request_box
155Buffalo, NY, 7 pgs. (April, July-August, October-November 1905, February 1906) request_box
155Burlington, IA, 1 pg.(October 1905)request_box
155Cedar Rapids, IA, 1 pg. (March 1906)request_box
155Charleston, SC, 1 pg. (October 1905)request_box
155Chattanooga, TN, 2 pgs. (June, August 1905)request_box
155Cincinnati, OH, 11 pgs. (April, June, August, October-November 1905, February 1906) request_box
155Columbus, GA (November 1905)(November 1905)request_box
155Columbus, OH, 6 pgs. (March-April, June, August, October-November 1905)request_box
155Dallas, TX, 2 pgs. (April, November 1905)request_box
155Detroit, MI, 5 pgs. (April, June, October-November 1905, undated)request_box
155Evansville, IN, 3 pgs. (June, September, November 1905)request_box
155Fall River, MA, 3 pgs. (August, October-November 1905)
  View the folder containing Albany, NY to Fall River, MA 
15A1Fort Smith, AR, 3 pgs. (April, October-November 1905)request_box
15A1Fort Worth, TX, 3 pgs. (March-April 1905, January 1906)request_box
15A1Gainsville, TX, 1 pg. (April 1905)request_box
15A1Grand Rapids, MI, 2 pgs. (October-November 1905)request_box
15A1Great Bend, KS, 2 pgs. (December 1905)request_box
15A1Hannibal, MO, 2 pgs. (June, December 1905)request_box
15A1Indianapolis, IN, 6 pgs. (March-April, June, October-November 1905)request_box
15A1Jacksonville, FL, 2 pgs. (October, December 1905)request_box
15A1Joplin, MO, 1 pg. (March 1905)request_box
15A1Kansas City, MO, 5 pgs. (April, June, August, November1905)request_box
15A1Knoxville, TN, 3 pgs.(February, June., August 1905)request_box
15A1Lake Charles, LA, 2 pgs. (April, November 1905)request_box
15A1Leavenworth, KS, 2 pgs. (April, December 1905)request_box
15A1Lincoln, NE, 2 pgs. (April, October 1905)request_box
15A1Little Rock, AR, 2 pgs. (June, December 1905)request_box
15A1Louisville, KY, 3 pgs. (March, June, November 1905)request_box
15A1Macon, GA, 1 pg. (June 1905)request_box
15A1Marietta, OH, 1 pg. (October 1905)request_box
15A1Marshall, TX, 2 pgs. (August 1905, undated)request_box
15A1Mason City, IA, 2 pgs. (August November 1905)request_box
15A1Memphis, TN, 5 pgs. (April, June, October-November 1905, February 1906)request_box
15A1Milwaukee, WI, 9 pgs. (January, March-April, June, August 1905)request_box
15A2Milwaukee, WI, 9 pgs. (cont'd)(January, March-April, June, August 1905)request_box
15A2Minneapolis, MN, 4 pgs. (April, June, August, October 1905)request_box
15A2Moberly, MO, 1 pg. (March 1905)request_box
15A2Mobile, AL, 2 pgs. (June-July 1905)request_box
15A2Montgomery, AL, 3 pgs. (March-June 1905)request_box
15A2Nashville, TN, 5 pgs. (March, June, November, undated 1905)request_box
15A2New Decatur, AL, 1 pg. (August 1905)request_box
15A2New Orleans, LA, 2 pgs. (April 1905)request_box
15A2Newport News, VA, 2 pgs. (August, November 1905)request_box
15A2Omaha, NE, 5 pgs. (March, August, October, December 1905, February 1906)request_box
15A2Paducah, KY, 1 pg. (June 1905)request_box
15A2Pensacola, FL, 1 pg. (June 1905)request_box
15A2Palestine, TX, 1 pg. (April 1905)request_box
15A2Perry, IA, 1pg. (June 1905)request_box
15A2Pine Bluff, AR, 2 pgs. (April, October 1905)request_box
15A2Pittsburg, PA, 6 pgs. (February, April, June, October-November 1905, February 1906) request_box
15A 2Pueblo, CO, 5 pgs.(April, June, September November-December 1905)request_box
15A2Richmond, VA, 3 pgs. (August, October-November 1905)request_box
15A2Rochester, NY, 6 pgs. (April, June, August, October-November 1905)request_box
15A2Rock Island, IL, 2 pgs. (August, October 1905)request_box
15A2St. Joseph, MO, 4 pgs. (March, June, August, December 1905)request_box
15A3St. Louis, MO, 10 pgs. (March-April, June, August, November 1905)request_box
15A3St. Stephens, SC, 1 pg. (November 1905)request_box
15A3San Antonio, TX, 1 pg. (April 1905)request_box
15A3San Francisco, CA, 2 pgs. (April 1905, March 1906)request_box
15A3Scranton, PA, 3 pgs. (April, June 1905, March 1906)request_box
15A3Sherman, TX, 1 pg. (April 1905)request_box
15A3Shreveport, LA, 2 pgs. (November 1905, undated)request_box
15A3Sioux Falls, SD, 1 pg. (October 1905)request_box
15A3South Bend, IN, 6 pgs. (April, June, August, October-November 1905, February 1906) request_box
15A 3Starkweather, ND, 1 pg.(October 1905)request_box
15A3Syracuse, NY, 4 pgs. (April, June, September-October 1905)request_box
15A3Terre Haute, IN, 1 pg. (August 1905)request_box
15A3Toledo, OH, 5 pgs. (April, June, August, October 1905, February 1906)request_box
15A3Topeka, KS, 1 pg. (April 1905)request_box
15A3Tyler, TX, 2 pgs. (April, June 1905)request_box
15A3Vicksburg, MS, 1 pg. (November 1905)request_box
15A3Waco, TX, 1 pg. (April 1905)request_box
15A3Waterloo, LA, 1 pg. (August 1905)request_box
15A3Wichita, KS, 2 pgs. (April, July 1905)request_box
15A3Wilkes-Barre, PA, 3 pgs. (April, June, August 1905)request_box
15A3Woodbine, NJ, 1 pg. (October 1905)request_box
15A3Youngstown, OH, 1 pg. (April 1905)request_box

Placement Records from Cities which Persons removed to, 1906

161 Albany, NY, 5 pgs.(April, June, September, November 1906)request_box
161Atlanta, GA, 4 pgs.(February, April, June, October 1906)request_box
161Augusta, GA, 1 pg.(April 1906)request_box
161Birmingham, AL, 2 pgs. (April, June 1906)request_box
161Boston, MA, 1 pg. (April 1906)request_box
161Buffalo, NY, 4 pgs. (April, June, October-November 1906)request_box
161Cedar Rapids, IA, 2 pgs. (June, October 1906)request_box
161Chatanooga, TN, 1 pg. (November 1906)request_box
161Cincinnati, OH, 9 pgs. (April, June, October-November 1906)request_box
161Cleveland, OH, 4 pgs. (April, June, October-November 1906)request_box
161Columbus, OH, 4 pgs. (April, June, October-November 1906)request_box
161Des Moines, IA 2 pgs. (May, November 1906)request_box
161Detroit, MI, 6 pgs. (February, April, June, October-November 1906)request_box
161Fall River, MA, 1 pg. (December 1906)request_box
161Ft. Smith, AR, 1 pg. (June 1906)request_box
161Ft. Worth, TX, 3 pgs. (April, October-November 1906)request_box
161Houston, TX, 1 pg. (May 1906)request_box
161 Indianapolis, IN, 4 pgs. (April, June, October-November 1906)request_box
161Kent, OH, 2 pgs.(August 1906)request_box
161Keokuk, IA, 1 pg. (April 1906)request_box
161Knoxville, TN, 1 pg. (April 1906)request_box
161La Crosse, WI, 1 pg. (June 1906)
  View the folder containing Albany, NY to La Crosse, WI 
162Logansfront, IN, 1 pg. (April 1906)request_box
162Lafayette, IN, 2 pgs. (July, October 1906)request_box
162Lincoln, NE, 1 pg. (November 1906)request_box
162Louisville, KY, 4 pgs. (April, June, November 1906)request_box
162Memphis, TN, 3 pgs. (April, June, November 1906)request_box
162Milwaukee, WI, 1 pg. (April 1906)request_box
162Nashville, TN, 2 pgs. (June 1906)request_box
162New Decatur, AL, 1 pg. (April 1906)request_box
162New Orleans, LA, 1 pg. (November 1906)request_box
162Omaha, NE, 5 pgs. (April, July, November-December 1906)request_box
162Pittsburg, PA, 6 pgs. (May, June, October-November 1906)request_box
162Portland, OR, 1 pg. (June 1906)request_box
162Rochester, NY, 5 pgs. (May-June, November-December 1906)request_box
162Scranton, PA, 1 pg. (April 1906)request_box
162St. Joseph, MO, 2 pgs. (April 1906)request_box
162St. Louis, MO, 8 pgs. (April, July, October-November 1906)request_box
162South Bend, IN, 6 pgs. (April, June, November-December 1906)request_box
162Syracuse, NY, 1 pg. (July 1906)request_box
162Toledo, OH, 5 pgs. (May, July, November 1906)request_box
162Waterloo, IA, 1 pg. (April 1906)request_box
162Woodbine, NJ, 1 pg. (June 1906)request_box
162Youngstown, OH, 1 pg. (April 1906)request_box

Placement Records from Cities which Persons removed to, 1907

163 Albany, NY, 3 pgs.(January, March, May 1907)request_box
163Atlanta, GA, 3 pgs.(January, March August 1907) request_box
16 3Beloit, WI, 1 pg.(October 1907)request_box
163Birmingham, AL, 5 pgs. (January, March, August, October, December 1907)request_box
163Buffalo, NY, 8 pgs. (January, March, May, August, October, December 1907)request_box
163Chattanooga, TN, 3 pgs. (January, April, May 1907)request_box
163Chickasha, OH, 1 pg. (January 1907)request_box
163Cincinnati, OH, 7 pgs. (January, March, May, August, October 1907)request_box
164Cincinnati, OH, 7 pgs. (cont'd)(January, March, May, August, October 1907)request_box
164Columbus, OH, 7 pgs. (January, March, May, August, October, December 1907)request_box
164Detroit, MI, 7 pgs. ( January, March, May, August, October, December 1907)request_box
164Erie, PA, 1 pg. (September 1907)request_box
164Fall River, MA, 1 pg. (October 1907)request_box
164Indianapolis, IN, 7 pgs. (January, March, May, August, October, December 1907)
  View the folder containing Cincinnati, OH (cont'd) to Indianapolis, IN 
165Jacksonville, FL, 1 pg. (October 1907)request_box
165Louisville, KY, 5 pgs. (January, April, September, October, December 1907)request_box
165Memphis, TN, 5 pgs. (January, March, May, August, October 1907)request_box
165Nashville, TN, 3 pgs. (January, March, December 1907)request_box
165Natchez, MS, 1 pg. (April 1907)request_box
165North Adams, MA, 1 pg. (May 1907)request_box
16 5Omaha, NE, 6 pgs.(January, March, May, August, October, December 1907)request_box
16 5Padacuh, KY, 1 pg.(March, 1907)request_box
165Pittsburg, PA, 7 pgs.(January, March, May, August, October, December 1907) request_box
16 5Rochester, NY, 7 pgs.(January, March, May, August, October, December 1907) request_box
16 5Rockford, IL, 1 pg.(October 1907)request_box
166St. Louis, MO, 11 pgs. (January, March, May, August, October, December 1907)request_box
166South Bend, IN, 5 pgs. (January, March, May, August, October 1907)request_box
166Syracuse, NY, 1 pg. (October 1907)request_box
166Toledo, OH, 7 pgs. (January, April, June, August, September, October, December 1907) request_box
16 6Youngstown, OH, 1 pg.(August 1907)request_box

Placement Records from Cities which Persons removed to, 1908

167 Atlanta, GA, 2 pgs.(April, July 1908)request_box
167Birmingham, AL, 2 pgs.(February, April 1908) request_box
16 7Buffalo, NY, 3 pgs.(February, April, July 1908)request_box
167Cincinnati, OH, 1 pg. (April 1908)request_box
167Columbus, OH, 3 pgs. (February, April, July 1908)request_box
167Detroit, MI, 1 pg. (February 1908)request_box
167Indianapolis, IN, 2 pgs. (February, April 1908)request_box
167Kalamazoo, MI, 1 pg. (April, 1908)request_box
167Lafayette, IN, 1 pg. (February 1908)request_box
167Lynchburg, VA, 1 pg. (February 1908)request_box
167Omaha, NE, 1 pg. (February 1908)request_box
167Pensacola, FL, 2 pgs. (February, July 1908)request_box
167Pittsburg, PA, 3 pgs. (February, April, November 1908)request_box
167Rochester, NY, 1 pg. (February 1908)request_box
167St. Louis, MO, 1 pg. (February 1908)request_box
167South Bend, IN, 1 pg. (February 1908)request_box
167Toledo, OH, 1 pg. (February 1908)request_box
167Traverse City, MI, 1 pg. (February 1908)request_box
167Ybor City, FL, 1 pg. (February 1908)request_box

Placement Records from Cities which Persons removed to, 1910

171 Akron, OH, 3 pgs.(June, August, November 1910)request_box
171Alliance, OH, 1 pg.(March 1910)request_box
171Atlanta, GA, 2 pgs. (June, August 1910)request_box
171Buffalo, NY, 4 pgs. (March, June, August, November 1910)request_box
171Bellaire, OH, 2 pgs. (February, June 1910)request_box
171Canton, OH, 1 pg. (March 1910)request_box
171Chattanooga, TN, 1 pg. (no date)request_box
171 Cincinnati, OH, 4 pgs.(February, June, August, November 1910)request_box
171Columbus, OH, 1 pg.(June 1910)request_box
171Dayton, OH, 4 pgs. (February, June, August, November 1910)request_box
171Detroit, MI, 5 pgs. (January, February, June, August, November 1910)request_box
171Erie, PA, 1 pg. (March 1910)request_box
171Grand Rapids, MI, 1 pg. (February 1910)
  View the folder containing Akron, OH to Grand Rapids, MI 
172Indianapolis, IN, 6 pgs. (January, February, March, June, September, November 1910)request_box
172Lima, OH, 1 pg. (March 1910)request_box
172Lincoln, NE, 2 pgs. (February, June 1910)request_box
172Lorain, OH, 1 pg. (February 1910)request_box
172Los Angeles, CA, 2 pgs. (April 1910)request_box
172Macon, GA, 1 pg. (July 1910)request_box
172Marion, OH, 1 pg. (January 1910)request_box
172Minneapolis, MN, 4 pgs. (April, August, November, no date 1910)request_box
172Pittsburg, PA, 4 pgs. (February, June, August, November 1910)request_box
172Portland, ME, 1 pg. (March 1910)request_box
172Rochester, NY, 3 pgs. (February, June, September 1910)request_box
172St. Joseph, MO, 1 pg. (No date)request_box
172 St. Louis, MO, 7 pgs.(June, August, November, no date 1910)request_box
172Seattle, WA, 1 pg.(February 1910)request_box
172Shelbyville, IN, 1 pg. (June 1910)request_box
172Springfield, OH, 1 pg. (February 1910)request_box
172Spokane, WA, 1 pg. (February 1910)request_box
172Syracuse, NY, 2 pgs. (February, July 1910)request_box
172Toledo, OH, 4 pgs. (February, June, September, November 1910)request_box
172Zanesville, OH, 1 pg. (February 1910)request_box

Placement Records from Cities which Persons removed to, 1911

173 Akron, OH, 1 pg.(November 1911) request_box
17 3Buffalo, NY, 4 pgs.(March, June, August, November 1911)request_box
173Champaign, IL, 1 pg. (May 1911)request_box
173 Cincinnati, OH, 4 pgs.(February, May, August, November 1911)request_box
173Columbus, OH, 1 pg.(August 1911)request_box
173Dayton, OH, 4 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1911)request_box
173Detroit, MI, 3 pgs. (May, August, November 1911)request_box
173Grand Rapids, MI, 2 pgs. (February, no date 1911)request_box
173Indianapolis, IN, 4 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1911)
  View the folder containing Akron, OH to Indianapolis, IN 
174Indianapolis, IN, 4 pgs. (cont'd)(February, May, August, November 1911)request_box
174Lima, OH, 1 pg. (no date)request_box
174 Lorain, OH, 1 pg.(May 1911) request_box
17 4Macon, GA, 2 pgs.(February, May 1911)request_box
174Milwaukee, WI, 2 pgs. (August, November 1911)request_box
174Montgomery, AL, 1 pg. (May 1911)request_box
174 Omaha, NE, 1 pg.(August 1911) request_box
17 4Pittsburg, PA, 1 pg.(November 1911)request_box
174St. Louis, MO, 5 pgs. (February, May, August November 1911)request_box
174Sandusky, OH, 1 pg (May 1911)request_box
174 Syracuse, NY, 2 pgs.(February, May 1911)request_box
174Toledo, OH, 4 pgs.(February, May, August, November 1911)request_box

Placement Records from Cities which Persons removed to, 1912

175 Akron, OH, 1 pg.(November 1912) request_box
17 5Atlanta, GA, 2 pgs.(August, November 1912)request_box
175Bay City, MI, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
175Beloit, WI, 2 pgs. (August, November 1912)request_box
175Buffalo, NY, 3 pgs. (February, August, November 1912)request_box
175Charlestown, SC, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
175Chattanooga, TN, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
175Cincinnati, OH, 2 pgs. (August, November 1912)request_box
175Cleveland, OH, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
175Columbus, OH, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
175Danville, IL, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
175Dayton, OH, 3 pgs. (February, August, November 1912)request_box
175Decatur, IL, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
175Detroit, MI, 5 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1912)request_box
175Fort Wayne, IN, 1 pg. (August 1912)request_box
175Gary, IN, 2 pgs. (August, November 1912)
  View the folder containing Akron, OH to Gary, IN 
176Grand Rapids, MI, 2 pgs. (August, November 1912)request_box
176Indianapolis, IN, 4 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1912)request_box
176Jackson, MI, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
176Jacksonville, FL, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
176La Crosse, WI, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
176Lafayette, IN, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
176Lima, OH, 1 pg (November 1912)request_box
176Lincoln, NE, 1 pg. (February 1912)request_box
176Logansport, IN, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
176Louisville, KY, 2 pgs. (February November 1912)request_box
176Marion, GA, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
176Milwaukee, WI, 7 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1912)request_box
176Muncie, IN, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
176Pittsburg, PA, 4 pgs. (February, August, November 1912)request_box
176Racine, WI , 1 pg. (August 1912)request_box
176St. Louis, MO, 5 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1912)request_box
176Sandusky, OH, 2 pgs. (May, August 1912)request_box
176Sheboygan, WI, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
176Terre Haute, IN, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
176Toledo, OH, 3 pgs. (February, May, November 1912)request_box
176Wheeling, WV, 1 pg. (November 1912)request_box
176Zanesville, OH, 3 pgs. (November 1912)request_box

Placement Records from Cities which Persons removed to, 1913

177 Akron, OH, 4 pgs.(February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
177Atlanta, GA, 2 pgs.(February, May 1913) request_box
17 7Bay City, MI, 1 pg.(February 1913)request_box
177Beloit, WI, 2 pgs. (August, November 1913)request_box
177Birmingham, AL, 1 pg. (February 1913)request_box
177Buffalo, NY, 6 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
177Canton, OH, 1 pg. (February 1913)request_box
177Cedar Rapids, IA, 1 pg. (no date)request_box
177 Cincinnati, OH, 4 pgs.(February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
177Columbia, SC, 1 pg.(no date)request_box
177Columbus, OH, 4 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
178Columbus, OH, 4 pgs. (cont'd)(February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
178Danville, IL, 1 pg. (February 1913)request_box
178Dayton, OH, 5 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
178Decatur, IL, 1 pg. (February 1913)request_box
178Detroit, MI, 7 pgs. (February, May, August, November, no date 1913)request_box
178Evansville, IN, 1 pg. (November 1913)request_box
178Fall River, MA, 1 pg. (November 1913)request_box
178Fort Wayne, IN, 2 pgs. (February, November 1913)request_box
178Gary, IN, 6 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1913)
  View the folder containing Columbus, OH (cont'd) to Gary, IN 
179Gary, IN, 6 pgs. (cont'd) (February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
179Grand Rapids, MI, 1 pg. (February 1913)request_box
179Indianapolis, IN, 4 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
179La Crosse, WI, 1 pg. (February 1913)request_box
179Lafayette, IN, 1 pg. (February 1913)request_box
179Lima, OH, 3 pgs. (February, May, November 1913)request_box
179Logansport, IN, 1 pg. (February 1913)request_box
179Louisville, KY, 2 pgs. (February, May 1913)request_box
179Lynchburg, VA, 1 pg. (February 1913)request_box
179Milwaukee, WI, 9 pgs. (May, July, August, November 1913)request_box
179Nashville, TN, 1 pg. (February1913)request_box
179 Pittsburg, PA, 7 pgs.(February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
1710 Pittsburg, PA, 7 pgs. (cont'd) (February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
1710 Racine, WI, 1 pg.(February 1913) request_box
17 10Richmond, VA, 1 pg.(August 1913)request_box
1710St. Louis, MO, 6 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
1710St. Paul, MN, 2 pgs. (February, May 1913)request_box
1710Sheboygan, WI, 3 pgs. (February, August, November 1913)request_box
1710South Bend, IN, 1 pg. (February 1913)request_box
1710Springfield, IL, 2 pgs. (February, November 1913)request_box
1710Terre Haute, IN, 1 pg. (February, 1913)request_box
1710Toledo, OH, 4 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
1710Youngstown, OH, 4 pgs. (February, May, August, November 1913)request_box
1710Zanesville, OH, 4 pgs. (March, May, August, November 1913)request_box

Placement Records from Cities which Persons removed to, 1914

1711Atlanta, GA, 1 pg.(May 1914)request_box
1711Buffalo, NY, 1 pg.(May 1914)request_box
1711Cedar Rapids, IA, 1pg.(May 1914)request_box
1711Savannah, GA, 1 pg(May 1914)request_box
Return to the Top of Page

Series III: Traveling Agents (Surveys of Towns for Possible Removal, undated, 1905-1914)

The predominant language of the series is English.
Boxes 18-20.

Material is arranged alphabetically by traveling agent, state, and town.

Scope and Content:

Within this series is correspondence and reports made by traveling IRO agents to David Bressler canvassing local Jewish communities. The traveling agents were responsible for promoting the IRO with local Jewish leaders, seeking the leaders' agreement to accept a certain number of men and families per month. The traveling agents also researched employment possibilities in towns and established reception and assistance committees for incoming immigrants.

Stanley Bero, 1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Birmingham1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Atlanta1906-1907
18 Macon1906-1907
18 Savannah1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Rockford1906-1907
18 Springfield1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Evansville1906-1907
18 Fort Wayne1906-1907
18 Indianapolis1906-1907
18 Lafayette1906-1907
18 Terre Haute1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Cedar Rapids1906-1907
18 Clinton1906-1907
18 Council Bluffs1906-1907
18 Davenport1906-1907
18 Des Moines1906-1907
18 Dubuque1906-1907
18 Fort Dodge1906-1907
18 Keokuk1906-1907
18 Ottuma1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Hutchinson1906-1907
18 Independence1906-1907
18 Leavenworth1906-1907
18 Iola1906-1907
18 Pittsburgh1906-1907
18 Topeka1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Battle Creek1906-1907
18 Bay City1906-1907
18 Grand Rapids1906-1907
18 Jackson1906-1907
18 Kalamazoo1906-1907
18 Saginaw1906-1907
18 Travers City1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Chisholm1906-1907
18 Dalcuth1906-1907
18 Eveleth1906-1907
18 Hibbing1906-1907
18 Minneapolis1906-1907
18 St. Paul1906-1907
18 Virginia1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Hannabal1906-1907
18 Joplin1906-1907
18 Kansas City1906-1907
18 Moberly1906-1907
18 St. Louis1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Grand Island1906-1907
18 Hastings1906-1907
18 Lincoln1906-1907

New York

Box TitleDate
18 Syracuse1906-1907

North Dakota

Box TitleDate
18 Fargo1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Akron1906-1907
18 Alliance1906-1907
18 Ashland1906-1907
18 Astabula1906-1907
18 Bellafontaine1906-1907
18 Bellaire1906-1907
18 Bacyras1906-1907
18 Canton1906-1907
18 Cincinnati1906-1907
18 Coneat1906-1907
18 Columbus1906-1907
18 Dayton1906-1907
18 Findlay1906-1907
18 Galion1906-1907
18 Hamilton1906-1907
18 Iranton1906-1907
18 Kenton1906-1907
18 Lima1906-1907
18 Lorain1906-1907
18 Mansfield1906-1907
18 Marietta1906-1907
18 Marion1906-1907
18 Middleton1906-1907
18 Newark1906-1907
18 Pique1906-1907
18 Portsmouth1906-1907
18 Sandusky1906-1907
18 Springfield1906-1907
18 Toledo1906-1907
18 Youngstown1906-1907
18 Zanesville1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Altoona1906-1907
18 Connellsville1906-1907
18 Eire 1906-1907
18 Harrisburg1906-1907
18 Pittsburg1906-1907
18 Scranton1906-1907
18 Uniontown1906-1907
18 Wilkes-Barre1906-1907
18 Williamsport1906-1907

South Dakota

Box TitleDate
18 Sioux Falls1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Chattanooga1906-1907
18 Knoxville1906-1907
18 Nashville1906-1907

West Virginia

Box TitleDate
18 Huntington1906-1907
18 Parksburg1906-1907
18 Wheeling1906-1907


Box TitleDate
18 Milwaukee1906-1907

Morris D. Waldman, 1905-1906


Box TitleDate
18 Fall River1905-1906


Box TitleDate
18 Richmond1905-1906


Box TitleDate
18 Superior1905-1906

Henry P. Goldstein, n.d

Box TitleDate
19 General Correspondence; American Palestine Companyundated

Michigan, undated

Box TitleDate
19  Adrianundated
19 Ann Arborundated
19 Battle Creekundated
19 Flint undated
19 Grand Rapidsundated
19 Jacksonundated
19 Lansingundated
19  Manisteeundated
19 Port Huronundated
19 Saginawundated
19 Traverseundated


Box TitleDate
19 Akron undated
19 Allianceundated
19 Astubulaundated
19 Bellaireundated
19  Cambridgeundated
19  Cantonundated
19  Chillicotlleundated
19  Coshoctonundated
19  Daytonundated
19  East Liverpoolundated
19  Findlayundated
19  Freemontundated
19  Hamiltonundated
19  Irontonundated
19 Lima undated
19 Mansfieldundated
19 Mariettaundated
19 Marionundated
19 Middletownundated
19 Newark undated
19 Pique undated
19 Salem undated
19 Sanduskyundated
19  Springfieldundated
19  Steubenvilleundated
19  Tiffinundated
19  Wellstownundated
19 Youngstownundated
19 Zanesvilleundated
19 Zenin undated

Philip Seaman, 1905-1914


Box TitleDate
19 Evansville1905-1914
19 Fort Wayne1905-1914
19 Gary1905-1914
19 South Bend1905-1914
19 Terre Haute1905-1914


Box TitleDate
19 Bay City1905-1914
19 La Crosse1905-1914
19 Milwaukee1905-1914
19 Racine1905-1914
19 Sheboygan1905-1914

Elias Margolis, 1908-1909, 1912

Box TitleDate
19 General Correspondence1908-1909, 1912


Box TitleDate
19 Wilmington1908-1909, 1912


Box TitleDate
19 Aurora1908-1909, 1912
19 Bloomington1908-1909, 1912
19 Chicago1908-1909, 1912
19 Danville1908-1909, 1912
19 Decatur1908-1909, 1912
19 Elgin1908-1909, 1912
19 Evansville1908-1909, 1912
19 Jacksonville1908-1909, 1912
19 Moline1908-1909, 1912
19 Peoria1908-1909, 1912
19 Springfield1908-1909, 1912
19 Streator1908-1909, 1912


Box TitleDate
19 Elwood1908-1909, 1912
19 Evansville1908-1909, 1912
19 Fort Wayne1908-1909, 1912
19 Goshen1908-1909, 1912
19 Huntington1908-1909, 1912
19 Indianapolis1908-1909, 1912
19 Kokome1908-1909, 1912
19 Lafayette1908-1909, 1912
19 Liganter1908-1909, 1912
19 Logansport1908-1909, 1912
19 Madison1908-1909, 1912
19 Marion1908-1909, 1912
19 Michigan City1908-1909, 1912
19 Muncie1908-1909, 1912
19 Pero 1908-1909, 1912
19 Richmond1908-1909, 1912
19 South Bend1908-1909, 1912
19 Terre Haute1908-1909, 1912
19 Wabash1908-1909, 1912


Box TitleDate
19 Cedar Rapids1908-1909, 1912


Box TitleDate
19 Grand Rapids1908-1909, 1912


Box TitleDate
19 St. Louis1908-1909, 1912


Box TitleDate
19 Canton1908-1909, 1912
19 Cincinnati1908-1909, 1912
19 Columbus1908-1909, 1912
19 Dayton1908-1909, 1912
19 Toledo1908-1909, 1912
19 Youngstown1908-1909, 1912


Box TitleDate
19 Allentown1908-1909, 1912
19 Lancaster1908-1909, 1912
19 Philadelphia1908-1909, 1912
19 York 1908-1909, 1912


Box TitleDate
19 Beloit1908-1909, 1912
19 Jamestown1908-1909, 1912
19 Oshkosh1908-1909, 1912
19 Racine1908-1909, 1912

Abraham Solomon, 1912-1913


Box TitleDate
20 Birmingham1912-1913
20 Mobile1912-1913
20 Montgomery1912-1913


Box TitleDate
20 Atlanta1912-1913
20 Augusta1912-1913
20 Macon1912-1913
20 Savannah1912-1913


Box TitleDate
20 Champaign1912-1913
20 Danville1912-1913
20 Decatur1912-1913
20 Springfield1912-1913


Box TitleDate
20 Indianapolis1912-1913
20 Lafayette1912-1913
20 Logansport1912-1913
20 Muncie 1912-1913
20 New Albany1912-1913
20 Richmond1912-1913
20 Terre Haute1912-1913

North Carolina

Box TitleDate
20 Charlotte1912-1913
20 Greensborough1912-1913
20 Raleigh1912-1913
20 Wilmington1912-1913


Box TitleDate
20 Akron1912-1913
20 Canton1912-1913
20 Columbus1912-1913
20 Lima 1912-1913
20 Lorain1912-1913
20 Newark1912-1913
20 Youngstown1912-1913
20 Zanesville1912-1913

South Carolina

Box TitleDate
20 Charleston1912-1913
20 Columbia1912-1913


Box TitleDate
20 Chattanooga1912-1913
20 Nashville1912-1913


Box TitleDate
20 Richmond1912-1913
Box TitleDate
20 Correspondence about Agent's work1912-1913
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Series IV: Outside Organizations (Correspondence arranged by city, 1901-1922)

The predominant language of the series is English.
Boxes 21-27.

Material is arranged alphabetically by city. Please see Industrial Removal Office finding aid located in the Reading Room of the Center for Jewish History for lists of correspondence with significant organizations found within each folder.

Scope and Content:

This series contains correspondence the IRO conducted with local and federal government agencies and national and local organizations. Among the types of organizations are aid societies, immigrant agencies, trade unions, hospitals, courts and penitentiaries, fraternal lodges, education boards, and newspapers. The correspondence concerns individual cases, local employment opportunities, immigration laws and conditions, financial records, and statistics. Of interest is the mention of family members sent to tuberculosis hospitals, aiding Turkish Jewish immigrants, and the IRO's work in Mexico. Examples of organizations include the American Jewish Committee, Denver National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, Jewish Daily Forward, National Council of Jewish Women, National Desertion Bureau, National Liberal Immigration League, and the Omaha Tailors Union. Among the correspondents are Sadie American, David Blaustein, Herbert Friedenwald, Louis Marshall, and Henrietta Szold.

Box TitleDate
21 A - Brooklyn
Box TitleDate
22 Buffalo - H
Box TitleDate
23 I - New Republic
Box TitleDate
24 New York. A - Ellis Island (HIAS)
Box TitleDate
25 New York. Emanuel Brotherhood - Jewish Daily News
Box TitleDate
26 New York. Jewish Daily Warheit - Trunk Line Association
Box TitleDate
27 New York. Union Settlement - Z
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Series V: Local Agents, (1901-1921)

The predominant language of the series is English.
Boxes 28-70, 124.

Folders are organized alphabetically by state and town.

Scope and Content:

This series reflects the relationship the New York IRO maintained with the community reception committees, agents, Jewish charities, and Jewish leaders. Material includes correspondence, telegrams, newspaper clippings, and immigrant records, and primarily regards individual cases, local employment conditions, monthly quotas, and finances. IRO's work in Canada and Mexico is also available.

Box TitleDate
28 Alabama: Alabama City - Mobile
Box TitleDate
29 Alabama: Montgomery - Uniontown
Box TitleDate
Box TitleDate
30 California: Los Angeles - San Bernadino
Box TitleDate
31  California: San Diego - Stockton
Box TitleDate
32 Colorado
Box TitleDate
33  Connecticut
Box TitleDate
 District of Columbia
Box TitleDate
34 Florida
Box TitleDate
  Illinois: Abingdon - Champaign
Box TitleDate
35 Illinois: Chicago
Box TitleDate
36  Illinois: Clinton - Waukegan
Box TitleDate
37  Indiana: Anderson - Hammond
Box TitleDate
124  Indiana: Indianapolis A
Box TitleDate
38  Indiana: Indianapolis B - South Bend A
Box TitleDate
39 Indiana: South Bend B - Wabash
Box TitleDate
 Iowa: Anamosa - Centerville
Box TitleDate
40 Iowa: Chariton - Woodward
Box TitleDate
41 Kansas
Box TitleDate
42  Kentucky
Box TitleDate
43 Louisiana
Box TitleDate
Box TitleDate
44  Maryland
Box TitleDate
Box TitleDate
45  Michigan: Bay City - Detroit A
Box TitleDate
46 Michigan: Detroit B
Box TitleDate
47 Michigan: Detroit C
Box TitleDate
48 Michigan: East Lansing - Traverse City
Box TitleDate
 Minnesota: Crookston - Minneapolis A
Box TitleDate
49 Minnesota: Minneapolis B - Winona
Box TitleDate
Box TitleDate
50 Missouri: Aurora - St. Louis A
Box TitleDate
51 Missouri: St. Louis B - Springfield
Box TitleDate
 Nebraska: Beatrice - Omaha A
Box TitleDate
52 Nebraska: Omaha B - South Omaha
Box TitleDate
 New Hampshire
Box TitleDate
53 New Jersey
Box TitleDate
 New York: Albany - Rochester A
Box TitleDate
54 New York: Rochester B - Yonkers
Box TitleDate
 North Carolina
 North Dakota
Box TitleDate
55 Ohio: Akron - Cincinnati
Box TitleDate
56 Ohio: Cleveland
Box TitleDate
57 Ohio: Columbus
Box TitleDate
58 Ohio: Conneaut - Portsmouth
Box TitleDate
59 Ohio: Sandusky - Zanesville
Box TitleDate
60 Oklahoma
Box TitleDate
 Pennsylvania: Allentown - Forrest City
Box TitleDate
61 Pennsylvania: Harrisburg - Uniontown
Box TitleDate
62 Pennsylvania: Warren - York
Box TitleDate
 Rhode Island
 South Carolina
 South Dakota
 Tennessee: Chattanooga
Box TitleDate
63 Tennessee: Clarksville - Nashville
Box TitleDate
64 Texas: Austin - Galveston
Box TitleDate
64A Texas: Houston - Waco
Box TitleDate
65 Utah
Box TitleDate
  Washington: Seattle
Box TitleDate
66  Washington: Spokane - Tacoma
Box TitleDate
 West Virginia
 Wisconsin: Beloit - Madison
Box TitleDate
67 Wisconsin: Milwaukee A
Box TitleDate
68 Wisconsin: Milwaukee B
Box TitleDate
69 Wisconsin: Milwaukee C - Superior
Box TitleDate
Box TitleDate
70 Canada
Box TitleDate
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Series VI: Job Offers, (1901-1921)

The predominant language of the series is English.
Boxes 71-82.

Material is organized alphabetically by state.

Scope and Content:

Various types of employers sought workmen. Bakers, carpenters, farm help, ironworkers, shoemakers, tailors are a small sampling of types of positions placed. This series contains the accepted or rejected response by the IRO New York Office. Reasons offered by the office for rejecting job offers from potential employers involved an insufficient number of men in particular trades, a lack of a Jewish community in the requested area, and the IRO's policy not to provide female help unless the male head of household is employed.

Job Offers, 1901-1921

Accepted Job Offers

Box TitleDate
71 Alabama - Florida
Box TitleDate
72 Georgia - Illinois
Box TitleDate
73 Indiana
Box TitleDate
74 Iowa - Massachusetts
Box TitleDate
75 Michigan - Missouri
Box TitleDate
76 Nebraska - North Dakota
Box TitleDate
77 Ohio - Oregon
Box TitleDate
78 Pennsylvania - South Carolina
Box TitleDate
79 Tennessee - Virginia
Box TitleDate
80 Washington - Wyoming
Box TitleDate

Rejected Job Offers, 1901-1921

Box TitleDate
81 Alabama - Montana
Box TitleDate
82 Nebraska - West Virginia - Canada
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Series VII: Bureau of Information and Advise, (1912-1921)

The predominant language of the series is English.
Boxes 83-85.

Correspondence is arranged alphabetically by state and town.

Scope and Content:

The Bureau of Information and Advise was created in 1912 by the IRO Office to connect immigrants with small cash capital to opportunities in Jewish communities throughout the United States. During that year, the Bureau requested local Business Associations or Chambers of Commerce to completed questionnaires providing Jewish community, trade, transportation, and economic conditions in their cities. Boxes 83 and 84 contain questionnaires dated from 1912 that are alphabetically arranged by state and town. Additional correspondence from local communities responding to the questionnaire is available in Box 85, in the miscellaneous correspondence folder, covering the years 1912-1921. Box 85 consists of requests, for the year 1917, by the IRO to local trade boards and Jewish aid societies for specific applicants regarding potential opportunities for a specific type of small business. Responses vary from over saturation of a type of business to open encouragement.

Box TitleDate
83 A - M; 1912 Population, Living Condition, and Employment Possibility Survey (By State)1912
Box TitleDate
84 N - W1912
Box TitleDate
85 Correspondence1912-1921
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Series VIII: IRO and Jewish Colonization Association (Correspondence, 1901-1921)

The predominant language of the series is English.
Boxes 86-90.

Material is organized by organization and country.

Scope and Content:

This series contains correspondence between the Jewish Colonization Association (ICA) in Paris and Russia with the Roumanian Relief Committee and the Industrial Removal Office in New York. Correspondence also exists between Jewish immigration agencies in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, and Switzerland with the IRO. The ICA in Paris coordinated relatives being sent to the US upon the IRO's or Roumanian Relief Committee's receiving their American counterpart's travel contributions. In Russia, the ICA was additionally concerned with the reunion of family members, a husband deserting his Russian family, a husband agreeing to support his wife and children in Russia, and missing Russian family members. Of further interest are the discussions between the immigration agencies regarding recent immigration laws and restrictions.

Box TitleDate
86  Industrial Removal Office to Jewish Colonization Association1903-1906
Box TitleDate
87 Industrial Removal Office to Jewish Colonization Association
1907-1909, 1912-1922
87 Industrial Removal Office to Jewish Colonization Association Branch in St. Petersburgh1913-1914
Box TitleDate
88 Jewish Colonization Association to Industrial Removal Office and Roumanian Committee1901-1903
Box TitleDate
89 Jewish Colonization Association to Industrial Removal Office1903-1908
Box TitleDate
90 Jewish Colonization Association to Industrial Removal Office1909, 1912-1921
90 Russian Jewish Colonization Association Branches to Industrial Removal Office
90 Various Foreign Organizations to Industrial Removal Office
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Series IX: Personal Correspondence, (1904-1922)

The predominant language of the series is English.
Box 91.

Material is arranged alphabetically by correspondent's last name.

Scope and Content:

This series concerns correspondence of individuals in the Jewish, political, and social service communities. The majority of the correspondence is issued from significant figures in the IRO such as Reuben Arkush, Eugene S. Benjamin, Nathan Bijur, David Bressler, Alfred Jaretzki, and Cyrus Sulzberger. Other correspondents include Charles Hallgarten, Morris Loeb, Jacob Schiff, William Taft, and Leo Weil. In addition to IRO financial, statistical, and administrative business; various topics consist of a small number of individual case files, widespread plans to help immigrants, work at Galveston Texas and Ellis Island New York, and assistance from the United Hebrew Charities, Baron de Hirsch Fund, and Jewish Colonization Society.

Box TitleDate
91 Jane Addams
91  Cyrus Adler
91 Reuben Arkush
91 Joseph Barondess
91 Jacob Bashein
91 Eugene S. Benjamin
91 Mundji Bey
91 Nathan Bijur
91 S. Bloch
91 Philip Bookstaber
91  Louis Brandeis
91 M. Caeser
91 John Foster Carr
91 Herbert Friedenwald
91 Avigdor Goldsmid
91 Richard Gottheil
91 Simon Gottschall
91 Charles Hallgarten
91 Gustave Hartman
91 Victor Harris
91 J.H. Haslam
91 Edward Herbert
91  A.J. Hoyt
91 Charles Hughes
91 Mark Hyman
91 Louis Jacobson
91 Alfred Jaretzki
91 Jeremiah Jenks
91 Joshua Joffe
91 Max Katowitz
91  Max J. Kohler
91  Joseph Kohn
91 L. Kopelovitch
91 Alphonse Lippetz
91 Morris Loeb
91 Judah L. Magnes
91 Louis Marshall
91  H. Pereira Mendes
91  Arthur Meyerowitz
91  George Miller
91  John Paley
91 M. Peissa-Kovitch
91 Nathan Perlman
91 A.J. Perlmutter
91 David De Sola Pool
91 James Reed
91 Albert Rosedale
91 A.M. Sakolski
91 Leon Sanders
91 Solomon Schechter
91 Jacob H. Schiff
91 Samuel Sheffler
91 P.A. Siegelstein
91 Jacob Singer
91 Adolphus Solomons
91 Isador Strauss
91 Cyrus Sulzberger
91 William Sulzer
91 Henrietta Szold
91  William Howard Taft
91 Leo Weil
91  Woodrow Wilson
91 Stephen Wise
91 Abraham Wolbarst
91 Samuel Yanofsky
91 A. Yoffie
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Series X: Correspondence of Immigrants, (1901-1921)

The predominant language of the series is Yiddish and English.
Boxes 91-122.

Material is arranged alphabetically by state and city.

Scope and Content:

Letters to and from immigrants helped, or in some cases, requesting help from overseas, fill this series. The correspondence provides insight into the cultural and philosophical differences and attitudes between the immigrants and the German Jewish IRO staff, describes the problems and successes of adjustments to the immigrants' new lives, and the immigrants' perceptions of America. Letters are frequently written in Yiddish, and sometimes in Russian or Romanian. Translations, some more cursory than others, made by the IRO staff often accompany the letters. The letters' envelopes may also exist.

Box TitleDate
92 Alabama: Bessemer - California: San Bernardino
Box TitleDate
93 California: San Francisco - Colorado: Denver
Box TitleDate
94  Colorado: Grand Junction - Florida: Pensacola
Box TitleDate
95  Florida: Tampa - Illinois: Chicago
Box TitleDate
96 Illinois: Chicago
Box TitleDate
97 Illinois: Danville - Indiana: Terre Haute
Box TitleDate
98  Iowa: Boone - Waterloo
Box TitleDate
99  Kansas: Arkansas City - Louisiana: Shreveport
Box TitleDate
100  Maine: Bangor-Massachusetts: Worcester
Box TitleDate
101 Michigan: Ann Arbor - Weston
Box TitleDate
102 Minnesota: Akeley - Worthington
Box TitleDate
103  Mississippi: Aberdeen - Missouri: St. Louis
Box TitleDate
104  Missouri: St. Louis - Nebraska: Lincoln
Box TitleDate
105  Nebraska: Omaha - New Jersey: Bayonne
Box TitleDate
106 New Jersey: Camden - New Mexico: Albuquerque
Box TitleDate
107 New York: Albany - Brooklyn
Box TitleDate
108  New York: Brooklyn - Buffalo
Box TitleDate
109 New York: Camillus - New York City
Box TitleDate
110  New York: New York City
Box TitleDate
111 New York: New York City
Box TitleDate
112  New York: New York City - Salamanca
Box TitleDate
113 New York: Saranac Lake - Ohio: Cincinnati
Box TitleDate
114  Ohio: Cleveland - Columbus
Box TitleDate
115  Ohio: Dayton - Zanesville
Box TitleDate
116  Oklahoma: Atoka - Pennsylvania: Munson Station
Box TitleDate
117 Pennsylvania: New Brighton - Williamsport
Box TitleDate
118  Rhode Island: Central Falls - Texas: Houston
Box TitleDate
119  Texas: Kingsville - West Virginia: Wheeling
Box TitleDate
120 Wisconsin: Antigo - Wyoming: Cody
Box TitleDate
121 Unidentified Material
121 Micellaneous Correspondence
Box TitleDate
122 Foreign letters of requests:
Box TitleDate
  Great Britain
 New Zealand
  Russian Empire and USSR
Box TitleDate
122 Envelopes with names and addresses
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Series XI: Surveys of Jewish Population and Living Conditions, (undated, 1906-1909)

The predominant language of the series is English.
Box 123.

Material is arranged alphabetically by state and town.

Scope and Content:

This series contains records from four surveys the IRO conducted on local Jewish life, population, and living conditions. Although the records are not complete, they provide a fair representation of statistics for certain states, particularly Ohio. The most extensive records exist for a 1906 survey that focuses on "conditions of Jewish life in small American cities." Questionnaires include information on Jewish life, health, standard of living and wages, industries, and education. A general Jewish population survey was also distributed to towns in 1906, and response letters and statistical tables are available. In 1907 and 1909, handwritten datacards were kept from two more surveys concerning "conditions of Jewish life in small American cities." The 1907 survey includes results from town in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. The 1909 survey contains responses from Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.

Box TitleDate
123 Survey on Conditions of Jewish Life in Small American Cities (4f)1906
Box TitleDate
 Unmarked folder [Jewish population data]
 Survey on Conditions of Jewish Life in Small American Cities1907
 Population Survey1906
 Survey of Population and Jewish Living Conditions1909
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