Guide to the Papers of Graenum Berger (1908-1999)
undated, [1825]-2002 (bulk 1923-2001)

Processed by Deena Schwimmer, Jessica Weglein, and Marvin Rusinek

American Jewish Historical Society

Center for Jewish History

15 West 16th Street

New York, N.Y. 10011

Phone: (212) 294-6160



© 2019  American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY. All Rights Reserved.
Machine-readable finding aid created by Deena Schwimmer as an MS-Word document. May 2003. Electronic finding aid converted to EAD 2002 by Tanya Elder. January 2004. Description is in English.
May 2005. Finding aid was updated and reconverted in order to match other online finding aids by Dianne Ritchey Oummia. December 2011. Accretion was added to Series I by Marvin Rusinek. September 2018. Dao links added to finding aid by Eric Fritzler.

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Graenum Berger (1908-1999)
Title: Graenum Berger Papers
Dates:undated, [1825]-2002 (bulk 1923-2001)
Abstract: The Papers of Graenum Berger (1908-1999) document Berger's involvement with Ethiopian Jewry and his efforts to bring about their rescue from Ethiopia through the organization he formed, the American Association for Ethiopian Jews (AAEJ). The Papers also contain materials from Berger's other interests - his writings, his travels throughout the world, his community affiliations, his research into Ethiopian Jewry and Black American Jews, his career as a Jewish social work executive, and his commitment to Jewish causes and to Israel. There are also many personal and biographical materials from the numerous long-term friendships and associations Berger established. The Papers contain correspondence, minutes, reports, clippings, manuscripts, research materials, journal articles, photographs, and publications.
Languages: The collection is in English with some materials in Hebrew, Amharic, French, and German.
Quantity: 40.15 linear feet plus 5 MAP folders. (65 manuscript boxes, 1 half-manuscript box, 1 photograph box, 3 oversized boxes and 5 Map Folders.)
Accession number: *P-717
Repository: American Jewish Historical Society
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Biographical Note

Graenum Berger (1908-1999)

Graenum Berger was born on April 21, 1908 in Gloversville, NY, a small town in the foothills of the Adirondack Mountains. His parents had arrived in the United States from Russian-controlled Poland several years earlier with their three eldest children; 3 more would be born in the United States. The Bergers joined a large extended family already in the United States, and relationships with aunts, uncles and cousins played a notable role in Graenum's early life. Berger's father earned his livelihood first as a peddler, and then in the leather business, which was the major industry in the Gloversville area. The family prospered sufficiently during Berger's early years to afford a telephone, a car and a summer cottage, all of which reflected the active, sociable character of the household.

Berger's parents kept a traditional Jewish home, and his father was a strict Sabbath observer who hired a private tutor to provide for his son's religious education before the local Hebrew School existed. Gloversville had a small but identifying Jewish community during Berger's childhood that included a local Orthodox synagogue, the Hebrew school, a Jewish Community Center and a kosher meat market. Berger's father was an active member of the synagogue and of the Hebrew School committee, and his mother was involved in the synagogue's relief society. Berger's childhood years, then, were spent in an environment that emerges as lively, outgoing and Jewishly-involved, features, which were prominent throughout his life as a Jewish communal worker and later as an activist on behalf of Ethiopian Jewry.

Unsure of how he felt about attending college and after a less-than-successful first year at New York University, Berger spent the next year working for a local newspaper. It was during this period that he met Emma Finestein, who would soon become his wife and life partner for more than 70 years. The following year he enrolled in the University of Missouri, but the long distance relationship blossomed. During his second year at the university, Graenum and Emma eloped in Missouri to avoid their families' disapproval of their marriage at such young ages. The first of their two sons was born the following year.

Berger was greatly involved in the Jewish student organization at the University of Missouri, and forged a strong relationship with its Director of Jewish Studies. It was this mentor who encouraged him to change his intended profession from public education to Jewish communal work. Upon Berger's graduation from college in 1930, he received a scholarship to and attended the recently formed Graduate School of Jewish Social Work in New York, after which he began his career as Executive Director of the Jewish Community Center of Staten Island. The embryonic field of professional Jewish organizational administration was well suited to someone with Berger's natural tendency toward leadership and advocacy, and his outgoing, hands-on, energetic and creative style. He spent six productive years there, and then a subsequent eleven at the Bronx Settlement House, a period during which the establishment notably expanded its services, assumed a role as a key neighborhood organization, and developed into a professional organization with a well-trained staff. In 1989, Bronx Settlement House was renamed Graenum Berger Bronx Jewish Federation Service Center in honor of Graenum Berger's years of service.

In 1949, Berger joined the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies of New York as a consultant to its Executive Director for Federation-sponsored community centers and summer camps. During the 24 years he spent at Federation until his retirement in 1973, Berger assumed many additional responsibilities including directing an institute dedicated to training middle and upper level future Federation executives, conducting studies, and delivering papers and lecturing on a variety of Jewish social work topics. Additionally, as a high level executive in the organization, he was involved in discussions regarding Federation's overall goals and policies. While Berger's energy, dedication and competence earned him wide respect among his colleagues, his direct, intemperate style often interfered with others' ability to open-mindedly consider his ideas, despite the considerable merit these ideas had. Furthermore, his opinions were occasionally at odds with those of many in the executive group. Most notably, Berger always believed strongly in the value of Jewish education, and at a time when Federation was becoming increasingly secular and even contemplated adopting a non-sectarian policy, Berger strongly advocated for preserving, and even expanding, the Jewish character of Federation and its member institutions.

While the Bergers lived a fairly modest lifestyle, they enjoyed a rich social and cultural life. They were active in many Jewish organizations and sustained numerous friendships, many of which were first established in the early years of their marriage. They maintained a lifelong association with the Gloversville Jewish community, where Graenum was born, and helped found the Pelham Jewish Center in the town in which they lived for many years. Berger was a voracious reader, given his curiosity about a broad range of topics, and, over time, amassed a substantial library that included many valuable books, particularly relating to Ethiopian Jewry and Black Jews, subjects about which Berger researched and wrote extensively. Over the course of their lives, the Bergers also accumulated a considerable amount of artwork from many different countries, for they were avid travelers, perhaps the one luxury which they extensively pursued as a means of satisfying their enthusiasm for exploring the various cultures and places throughout the world.

This natural inquisitiveness, coupled with Berger's persistent manner, gradually propelled a coincidental encounter in 1955 with Ethiopian Jewish children studying in Israel into a mission which would dominate the latter half of his life. While this first exposure was merely noted as an interesting event at the time, during the ensuing years, Berger attempted to learn all he could about this ancient tribe, disparagingly referred to by their gentile neighbors as Falashas but who called themselves Beta Israel. In 1965, the Bergers traveled to Ethiopia to see firsthand the conditions under which the Ethiopian Jews were living. During this visit, the first of many which would follow, Berger was, at the same time, captivated by the dignity of the people and their unwavering loyalty to their faith, yet appalled by their dire poverty and lack of medical care, education and other basic necessities. It was then and there that he fully realized that, while immediate relief was critically needed, the only lasting solution for this long-isolated tribe which, as his research indicated, had once numbered hundreds of thousands but which harsh circumstances had already reduced to less than 50,000, was for them to be absorbed en masse in Israel. At that moment, he also determined, with characteristic resolve, to work toward fulfillment of this objective.

From that initial visit to Ethiopia until his retirement from Federation in 1973, Berger became increasingly more involved in the cause of Ethiopian Jewry. He and Emma began to raise money for educational and medical programs, and Berger reached out to leaders in the Jewish world who might be helpful to the issue of large scale rescue, and made contacts with the few, assorted groups and individuals involved in the plight of Ethiopian Jews. As the benefit of consolidating the various activist efforts became evident, following his retirement from Federation, Berger formed the American Association for Ethiopian Jews (AAEJ) in 1974 by merging two grassroots organizations that had become active on behalf of Ethiopian Jewry. Berger was elected President of the newly formed organization.

Thus, at a time when many at his stage of life would be content to reflect on what had been a long and successful career, including having been granted an Honorary Doctorate by Yeshiva University in 1973 for his services to the Jewish community, Berger assumed the leadership role of an ambitious undertaking to which he immediately devoted much, and subsequently, close to all, of his considerable energies. The primary objective of the AAEJ was to make saving Ethiopian Jewry a number one priority of the Government of Israel and of world Jewish leadership. To this end, Berger spent much time speaking with Israeli and Jewish organizational officials about the plight of the Beta Israel, believing that, once told, rescue would not be long in coming. However, at that time, the Chief Rabbinate of Israel had not yet unequivocally ruled on the Jewishness of the Beta Israel, therefore they were not eligible for citizenship under the Law of Return. This ambiguity regarding their status as Jews, combined with, except in the case of a few individuals, what Berger believed was an overall disinclination to bring them to Israel on the part of officials of the dominant Labor government in Israel, frustrated his early expectations for prompt improvement of the circumstances of the Ethiopian Jews.

While continuing their efforts with Israeli government officials, the AAEJ also embarked on a campaign to educate the general North American public regarding the predicament of the Beta Israel as a means of both raising money on their behalf and increasing grassroots pressure on the organized Jewish establishment and Israeli policy. Berger lectured frequently, wrote numerous articles, and was interviewed on radio and television and in print. His organization also continued to work with various Jewish relief agencies, although many of these preferred to focus on long-term improvement of conditions for the Jews in Ethiopia instead of emigration to Israel, which AAEJ policy regarded as the only viable solution to rescue the dwindling remnant of this ancient people.

By the late 1970's, the Israeli Rabbinate had recognized the Beta Israel as Jews, and the Likud party had replaced the incumbent Labor Party in Israel, with Menachem Begin as Prime Minister. While Berger had stepped down as president of AAEJ in order to allow it to broaden its leadership, he was still fully devoted to and engaged with the cause, and remained a most influential member of its Board of Directors. In light of the recent changes in Israel, Berger anxiously hoped an imminent breakthrough would be at hand, for his mounting frustration had progressed into alarm as the political and economic conditions in Ethiopia deteriorated due to the civil unrest that erupted following the Marxist takeover of the government in 1974 and the severe famine that was currently devastating much of the country. The Israeli government, however, maintained that, despite its present desire to rescue the Beta Israel, they no longer had any diplomatic influence in Ethiopia, which had, along with all of Israel's allies in Africa, succumbed to Arab pressure to sever ties with Israel following the Yom Kippur War and had become increasingly influenced by the Soviet Union, which maintained a strict policy of anti-Jewish immigration. Israel further cautioned that calling attention to the issue would imperil any clandestine agreements that were being negotiated in the highly sensitive political environment.

As time progressed and no rescue appeared imminent or even planned for, Berger's growing skepticism of Israel's intent, and his genuine distress over the plight of the Ethiopian Jews, drove him to employ increasingly more aggressive tactics to embarrass the Israeli government into taking action. Berger threatened to publicize Israel's apparent indifference in lectures and advertisements, a very unpopular approach that exacerbated what had already become strained relations between AAEJ on one side, and most other Jewish organizations and the Israeli government on the other. AAEJ also attempted its own rescues of individuals and small groups from Ethiopia and Sudan, where many had fled, with varying degrees of success and some notable failures, in order to prove that it could be done despite the lack of official diplomatic avenues. This practice was criticized for interfering with Israel's covert efforts and contributed to AAEJ's further alienation from the Israeli government and the Jewish organizational establishment.

During the subsequent years prior to the first wave of large-scale Israeli airlifts of Ethiopian Jews in 1984, and until the final one in 1991, Berger and AAEJ continued to labor for the rescue of Ethiopian Jewry. Berger was largely undeterred by the near pariah status of his organization, except that it impeded access to influential people who could assist in the goals of AAEJ. The motivations and politics behind the rescue continue to be widely debated. The AAEJ role has been, at the same time, condemned for its public criticism of Israel and its interference with Israeli rescue efforts, dismissed as the attempts of mere amateurs with a simplistic understanding of the task at hand, and praised for propelling an issue in which there was little interest into a major priority of world Jewry and the Israeli government. Berger himself remained fully convinced it was chiefly the unrelenting, forceful pressure of AAEJ that put the issue on the agenda of the Jewish establishment, and which, ultimately, compelled the Israeli government to rescue the Beta Israel.

Despite the range of opinions regarding AAEJ's methods and influence, even Berger's staunchest critics have acknowledged his devotion to the welfare of Ethiopian Jewry. Of the many examples of this in Berger's personal records, most revealing, perhaps, are the numerous correspondence from Ethiopian Jews, whom Berger had both met and not met, on a variety of issues and concerns, and which were promptly answered with lengthy, individualized responses in which he, depending on the case, humbly acknowledged their gratitude for his assistance on their behalf, encouraged them in the challenges they faced in adopting to a new land and culture, and shared their distress over relatives left behind and pledged to continue his efforts until all of the Beta Israel had been rescued. Berger rejoiced in the rescue of Ethiopian Jewry, and within months following the airlifts of the virtual remainder of them in 1991, again demonstrated his integrity of purpose by recommending that AAEJ consider closing its doors, since its original goal of advocating for the rescue of Ethiopian Jewry had been achieved, and to become involved with absorption issues would only duplicate the work of what he believed were adequate public and voluntary organizations already providing these services. By mid-1993, AAEJ had officially shut down.

Berger had numerous interests to occupy him following the disbandment of AAEJ, many of which had been postponed somewhat during the height of his activism on behalf of Ethiopian Jewry. Berger had always been a voracious reader and a prolific writer, who, in addition to having written many articles and papers during his professional career, had also produced several full length works, including an autobiography entitled Graenum, (1987), and a biography of his brother who was a foreign diplomat entitled A Not So Silent Envoy (1992). An earlier work, Black Jews in America (1978), was a subject about which Berger collected much material and researched in depth. A memoir of Berger's involvement in the plight of Ethiopian Jewry entitled Rescue the Ethiopian Jews! was published in 1996. The Bergers maintained their contacts with many individual Ethiopian Jews, and traveled to the extent that their health permitted. They suffered the painful loss of their eldest son, Ramon, in 1993, but were actively involved in the lives of their remaining son, Michael and their five grandchildren, and celebrated the birth of four great-grandchildren. Berger died on March 31, 1999 at the age of 90.


Compiled based on archival documents in the Graenum Berger Papers, as well as information from two of Berger's published works, Graenum, (Hoboken:KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 1987), and Rescue the Ethiopian Jews!, (New Rochelle, NY: John Washburn Bleeker Hampton, 1996).


April 21, 1908 Born in Gloversville, New York
1925 Enters New York University. Later transfers to University of Missouri
1928 Elopes with Emma Finestein in Missouri
1929 Berger's first son, Ramon, is born
1930-1932 Attends the Graduate School of Jewish Social Work in New York
1932-1938 Appointed Executive Director of Jewish Community Center of Staten Island
1938 Son, Michael Berger, is born
1938-1949 Appointed Headworker, Bronx Settlement House
1949 Joins Federation of Jewish Philanthropies of New York as consultant for Jewish Community Centers and Camps
1955 Meets Ethiopian Jewish children in Kfar Batya, Israel
1965 Visits Jewish villages in Ethiopia. Becomes involved with Ethiopian Jewry
1973 Retires from Federation
1973 Awarded Doctor in Humane Letters from Yeshiva University
1974 American Association for Ethiopian Jewry formed; Berger is first President
1975 Revisits Ethiopia to observe conditions of Jews under the Marxist revolution
1978 Black Jews in America published
1978 Turns over AAEJ Presidency to Howard Lenhoff
1984 Operation Moses airlifts Ethiopian Jews from Sudan to Israel
1987 Autobiography Graenum published
1991 Operation Solomon airlifts Ethiopian Jews from Ethiopia to Israel
1993 AAEJ closes down upon completion of its mission
1996 Rescue the Ethiopian Jews! published
March 31, 1999 Dies in New Rochelle, New York
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Scope and Content Note

The greater part of the Graenum Berger Papers relates to Berger's involvement with Ethiopian Jewry, and his efforts to bring about their rescue through the organization he formed, the American Association for Ethiopian Jews (AAEJ), which existed from 1973-1993. There also are considerable materials from various other interests that Berger pursued during his long life, including his writings, his travels, his community affiliations, his research into Black American Jews, his professional work, and his commitment to Jewish causes and to Israel. The collection also contains many personal and biographical materials from throughout Berger's life, which provide insight into his family life and his many long-term friendships and associations.

The collection is valuable to researchers studying the history of Ethiopian Jewry from antiquity through current times, including various theories regarding their origins, Rabbinic opinions as to whether they should be accepted as Jews according to Jewish Law, and their dramatic rescue and absorption into Israel. The extensive records from the AAEJ contain important information about the development of this organization, about its major players, and its goals and methods. These records also provide information for researchers studying the politics behind the rescue of the Beta Israel, and the role played in it not only by grass roots advocacy groups, but also by the organized Jewish establishment, the Israeli government, and the government of Ethiopia. Of special note in the collection is correspondence to and from various US and Israeli governmental officials and personalities, such as Menachem Begin, Teddy Kolleck, Senator Rudy Boschwitz, and Elie Wiesel.

There is also information important for those researching Black Jews in America, as well as some material for those studying the fields of Jewish social work and Jewish organizational administration during the 1930s through the 1970s. Berger's early biographical materials could provide some insight into Jewish community life in a small town in the early twentieth century.

The collection contains correspondence, minutes, reports, newspaper clippings, manuscripts, research materials such as notes and book excerpts, journal articles, photographs, pamphlets, and publications. There are also some non-print materials such as posters, buttons, and maps. The documents are primarily in English, followed by Hebrew, Amharic, French, German and Italian. Folders are arranged by series. Each series contains various format divisions arranged chronologically. The original order and folder titles were retained wherever possible.

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The collection contains the following nine series:

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Access and Use

Access Restrictions

The collection is open to all researchers by permission of the Director of Collections and Engagement of the American Jewish Historical Society, except items that are restricted due to their fragility.

Use Restrictions

Information concerning the literary rights may be obtained from the Director of Library and Archives of the American Jewish Historical Society. Users must apply in writing for permission to quote, reproduce or otherwise publish manuscript materials found in this collection. For more information contact:
American Jewish Historical Society, Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street, New York, NY, 10011

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Related Material

American Jewish Historical Society:
- American Association for Ethiopian Jews Collection
- Howard Lenhoff Papers
- Nathan Shapiro Papers
- The Graduate School for Jewish Social Work Records, I-7
- Louis Kraft Papers, P-673
- Matthew Penn, Graenum Berger Collection, P-794
American Jewish Archives (Cincinnati, OH):
- Graenum Berger Papers, 1940-1989, MS-352
- Federation of Jewish Philanthropies of New York. Oral History Project, 1981-1987, MS-437
- American Pro-Falasha Committee. Records, 1922-1949, MS-61

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Graenum Berger donated his papers to the Society beginning 1987 in a series of accessions. Materials donated after his death by his wife Emma Berger were incorporated into the collection.

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Digitization Note

In 2017-2018, archival material from the Graenum Berger Papers was selected by the Friends of Ethiopian Jews and folder-level digitization has been made possible through a generous grant from Howard and Sylvia Lenhoff.

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Preferred Citation

Published citations should take the following form:
Identification of item, date (if known); Graenum Berger Papers; *P-717; box number; folder number; American Jewish Historical Society, New York, NY.

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Appendices A-H: Bibliography of Selected Articles and Book Chapters

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Appendix A: Ethiopian Jewry - Journal Articles, Historical/Political

Carol, Dr. Steven. "The Lion of Judah and the Land of Judah: Ethiopia and Israel Linkages." Judaica Philatelic Journal of the Judaica Historical Philatelic Society. Winter 1982: 2359-2366.

Friedenberg, Daniel M. "The Decline and Fall of the Falashas." Judaism, a Quarterly Journal of Jewish Life and Thought. 1956: 239-247.

Kaplan, Steven. "The Beta Israel (Falasha) Encounter with Protestant Missionaries: 1860-1905."Jewish Social Studies. Winter 1987: 27-42.

Kaplan Steven, "Falasha Christians: A Brief History." Midstream. 1992.

Kessler, David, and Tudor Parfitt. "The Falashas: The Jews of Ethiopia." Unknown Journal. 1980s.

Leslau, Wolf. "A Falasha Religious Dispute." Reprinted from the Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research. 1947: 71-95.

Messing, Simon D. "Journey to the Falashas: Ethiopia's Black Jews." Commentary. 1968 or 1969: 28-40.

Pankhurst, Richard. "Plans for Mass Jewish Settlement in Ethiopia (1936-1943)." 1973: Ethiopia. 235-245.

Selassie, Sergew Hable. "The Problem of Gudit." Journal of Ethiopian Studies. January 1972: 113-124.

Wagaw, Teshome G. "The Emigration and Settlement of Ethiopian Jews in Israel." Middle East Review. Winter 1987-88: 41-48.

Weitz, Martin M. "Dark Jews of the Dark Continent." The Hebrew Union College Monthly. June 1931: 19-22.

Zaoui, Andre C. "Falashas: Our Brethren Jews…of the Tribe of Dan." . Central Conference of American Rabbis Journal Winter 1973: 50-55

Appendix B: Ethiopian Jewry - Journal Articles - Jewish Legal Analysis

Angel, Marc D. "Another Halakhic Approach to Conversions." Tradition. 1983[?]: 107-112.

Bleich, David J. "The Problem of the Falashas." Or Hamizrah. 1985: 235-253 (Hebrew).

Elon, Menachem. "The Ethiopian Jews: A Case Study in the Functioning of the Jewish Legal System." New York University Journal of International Law and Politics. Spring 1987: 535-563.

Freehof, Solomon B. "Responsum on the Falashas as Jews." Central Conference of American Rabbis Journal. Winter 1973: 56-59.

Mann, Isaac. "The Prohibition of Teaching Non-Jews Torah: Its Historical Development" Gesher: Bridging the Spectrum of Orthodox Jewish Scholarship. 1984[?]: 122-153.

Riskin Steven. "Conversion in Jewish Law." Tradition. 1980[?]: 29-42.

Schachter, Rabbi Hershel. "Determining Jewish Identity: Ethiopian Jewry." Journal of Halacha and Contemporary Society. Spring 1985: 143-160.

Tendler, Rabbi Moshe. "The Long Return." Yeshiva Student Publications. 1985[?]: 4-14.

Wolpin, Nisson. "The Ethiopian Aliya." The Jewish Observer. April 1985: 8-19.

Appendix C: Ethiopian Jewry - Journal Articles - Social Science/ Cultural

Abbink, J. "Seged Celebration in Ethiopia and Israel: Continuity and Change of a Falasha Religious Holiday." International Review of Ethnology and Linguistics. 1983: 790-809.

Adam, Avinoam, et. al. "A Survey of Some Genetical Characters in Ethiopian Tribes." American Journal of Physical Anthropology. June 1962: 168-208B.

Friedman, Daniel & Ulysses Santamaria. "Identity Change: The Example of the Falashas, between Assimilation in Ethiopia and Integration in Israel." Dialectical Anthropology. 1990: 56-73.

Greenwald, Baruch. "Religious and Cultural Change: A Case Study of an Ethiopian Jewish Priest." Journal of Jewish Communal Service. Fall 1989: 92-96.

Harel, D., M.D. "Medical Work Among the Falashas of Ethiopia." Israel Journal of Medical Science. May/June 1967: 483-490.

Isaac, Ephraim."The Hebraic Character of Ethiopian Culture." The Jewish Digest. 1965: 67-72.

Leslau, Wolf. "Taamrat Emmanuel's Notes of Falasha Monks and Holy Places." American Academy for Jewish Research. 1974: 624-637.

Mafico, Temba. "Parallels Between Jewish and African Religio-Cultural Lives." Sidic: Journal of the Service International de Documentation Judeo-Chretienne (English edition). 1978: 9-27.

Pawlikowski, John T. "The Judaic Spirit of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church: A Case Study in Religious Acculturation." Journal of Religion in Africa. 1972: 178-199.

Schindler, Reuben. "Ethiopian Outreach: The Challenge for Social Work." The Jewish Social Work Forum. Spring 1989: 92-97.

Shelemay, Kay Kaufman. "Seged: A Falasha Pilgrimage Festival." Musica Judaica - Journal of the American Society for Jewish Music. 1980-1981: 42-62.

Shelemay, Kay Kaufman. "Zema: A Concept of Sacred Music in Ethiopia." The World of Music. n.d: 52-65.

Tesfai, Yacob, and Meseret Sebhat-Leah. "Jewish Elements in Ethiopian Christianity and the Religion of the Falashas." Sidic: Journal of the Service International de Documentation Judeo-Chretienne (English edition). 1978: 28-31.

Warmbrand, Martin J. "Falasha or Beta Israel of Ethiopia." The Hourglass. Fall 1971: 1-8.

Wurmbrand, Max. "The Falasha "Arde'et." Falasha Research Series. Published by Friends of the Faitlovitch Library. 1964.

Zipperstein, Steve, and Eliezer D. Jaffe. "Models of Israeli Social Analysis." Journal of Jewish Communal Service. Fall 1981: 24-35.

Appendix D: Ethiopian Jewry - Journal Articles - Reference

Kaplan Steven. List of Studies on Ethiopian Jewry. May 1986.

Leslau, Wolf. "A Supplementary Falasha Bibliography." Studies in Bibliography and Booklore. June 1957: 9-27.

Appendix E: Ethiopian Jewry - Book Chapters

Bleich, J. David. "Teaching Torah to Non-Jews." Contemporary Halachic Problems. New York: Ktav, 1985[?].

Freehof, Solomon B. "Marriage with Falasha." A Treasury of Responsa. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1963.

Goldstein, Israel. My World As A Jew: The Memoirs of Israel Goldstein. Volume 2. New York: Herzl Press, 1984.

Goldstein, Israel. "The Falasha Jews of Ethiopia. Address Before Conference of Jewish Organizations. Geneva, July 19, 1969." Israel at Home and Abroad. Jerusalem: Rubin Mass Press, 1973.

Hess, Robert L. "Toward a History of the Falasha." Eastern African History, McCall, D. F. et al., ed. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, 1969.

Kaplan, Robert D. The Arabists; The Romance of An American Elite. New York: The Free Press, 1993.

Kisch, E. E. "The Bible and Babel in the New World." Tales from Seven Ghettos. London: Robert Anscombe & Co., 1948.

Melman, Yossi, and Dan Raviv. "Lakam and the Nuclear Bomb." The Imperfect Spies; The History of Israeli Intelligence. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1989.

Musleah, Rabbi Ezekiel N. On the Banks of the Ganga; The Sojourn of Jews in Calcutta. North Quincy, Mass: The Christopher Publishing House, 1975.

Ostrovsky, Victor, and Claire Hoy. "Operation Moses." By Way of Deception. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990.

Parfitt, Tudor. Operation Moses: the untold story of the secret exodus of the Falasha Jews from Ethiopia New York: Stein and Day, 1985.

Payne, Eric. Ethiopian Jews; The Story of a Mission. London: The Olive Press, 1972

Shack, William. "The Central Ethiopians: Amhara, Tigrina, and Related Peoples." Ethnographic Survey of Africa, Part IV. London: International African Institute, 1974.

Simoons, Frederick J. Northwest Ethiopia; Peoples and Economy. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1960.

Szulc, Ted. "The Black Jews." The Secret Alliance - The Extraordinary History of the Rescue of the Jews Since World War II. New York: Farrar, Straus, Ciroux, 1991.

Weise, Barry, and Abraham J. Bayer. "Ethiopian Jewry." The 1986 Jewish Directory and Almanac. Pacific Press, 1986.

Appendix F: Ethiopia - Journal Articles

Gitelson, Susan Aurelia. "Escalating Conflicts in the Horn of Africa." Middle East Review. Summer 1978: 57-63.

Janke, Peter. "Marxism in Africa: The Cuban Connection." Midstream. August-September 1978: 3-10.

Appendix G: Black Jews - Journal Articles

Bleich, J. David. "Black Jews: A Halakhic Perspective." Tradition. Spring/Summer 1975: 48-79.

Brotz, Howard. "The Negro-Jewish Community and the Contemporary Race Crisis." Jewish Social Studies. January 1965: 10-17.

Brotz, Howard. "Negro 'Jews' in the United States." Phylon. 4th Quarter 1952: 324-337.

Ehrman, Albert. "Explorations and Responses: Black Judaism in New York." Journal of Ecumenical Studies. Winter 1971: 103-114.

Kreigel, Annie. "Jews and Blacks." Jerusalem Quarterly. Spring 1978: 22-33.

Landes, Ruth. "Negro Jews in Harlem." Jewish Journal of Sociology. December 1967: 175-189.

Scott, William R. "Going to the Promised Land: Afro-American Immigrants in Ethiopia, 1930-1935." The Institute of the Black World. 1975: 1-16.

Waitzkin, Howard. "Black Judaism in New York." Harvard Journal of Negro Affairs. Vol. 1, No.3 (1967): 12-44.

Warmbrand, Martin J. "The Black Jews of America." The Hourglass, A Quarterly Journal of Ecumenics for Today and Tomorrow. Fall 1969: 86-104.

Whiteman, Maxwell. "Black Genealogy." RQ (unknown journal). Summer 1972: 311-319.

Appendix H: Black Jews - Book Chapters

Fauset, Arthur Huff. "Black Gods of the Metropolis." Negro Religious Cults of the Urban North. New York: Octagon Books, 1970.

Ginzburg, Eli. "Jew and Negro: Notes on the Mobility of Two Minority Groups in the United States." Salo Wittmayer Baron Jubilee Volume. Jerusalem: American Academy for Jewish Research, 1974.

Lavender, Abraham D., ed. "Black Jews." A Coat of Many Colors. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977.

Lincoln, C. Eric. "The Black Experience in Religion." Anchor Books, 1974.

Ottley, Roi. "Jews in Negro Life." New World A-Coming. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1943.

Simpson, George Eaton. Black Religions in the New World. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.

Access Points

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Container List

The following section contains a detailed listing of the materials in the collection.

Click the box in the request column to open the form that allows you to request a box for onsite viewing in the reading room at the Center for Jewish History, New York, NY.


Series I: Personal, undated, 1923-2000

The series is in English.
Boxes 1-2

This series is arranged in chronological order by type of material including: Biographical, Chronological, and Subject Files, and Awards and Honors.

Scope and Content:

This series includes materials concerning the personal life of Graenum Berger, and is arranged into four sections. It contains Biographical information, such as high school yearbooks, transcripts, resumes, biographical clippings, as well as obituary notices and eulogies. The Chronological Files include various materials chronicling Berger's early and professional years, and contain correspondence from many of his personal and professional contacts. The Subject Files contain materials relating to his travels to Israel and Ethiopia, information regarding a scholarship fund that the Bergers established at Hebrew University, and documentation relating to the Pelham Jewish Center, which Berger was involved in establishing. Finally, the series contains various Awards and Honors that Berger received. Because of his extensive involvement in Ethiopian Jewry, many of Berger's personal items contain references to his efforts on their behalf, such as his diaries and letters.

An accretion to the Graenum Berger collection was processed in December 2011. Contents include personal correspondence, news clippings, and thank you letters marking his retirement. The accretion also contains correspondence regarding Berger's involvement with the Pelham Jewish Center, West Bronx Jewish Federation Service Center, and UJA-Federation of New York. Finally the accretion contains manuscript drafts of "An Ambassador So Feisty" and "A Not So Silent Envoy", which are drafts of manuscripts in honor of Graenum's brother, Ambassador Samuel David Berger. For the final manuscripts, see Series II.

11Biographical - Gloversville High School Yearbook1925request_box
12Biographical - Gloversville High School 40th, 50th, & 60th Reunions1965, 1975, 1985request_box
13Biographical - Resumes undated, 1938, 1941, 1945, 1967, 1973, 1984request_box
14Biographical - Transcript/Civil Service Job Application1940 request_box
1 5Biographical - Miscellaneous Biographical Summariesundated, 1949, 1952, 1971, 1974, 1980, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1999request_box
16Biographical - Clippings about Bergerundated, 1923, 1929-1993, 1998request_box
17Biographical - Obituary Notices1999request_box
18Biographical - Eulogies for Berger1999request_box
19Biographical - Tributes to Berger1999-2000request_box
110Chronological Filesundatedrequest_box
111Chronological Files1929, 1938request_box
112Chronological Files1944-1954request_box
113Chronological Files1955, 1959, 1962, 1964-1966request_box
114Chronological Files1968request_box
115Chronological Files1971request_box
116Chronological Files1975-1976request_box
117Chronological Files1977-1978request_box
118Chronological Files1979-1981request_box
119Chronological Files1982-1985request_box
120Chronological Files1987request_box
121 Chronological Files1988 request_box
1 22 Chronological Files1989request_box
123Chronological Files1990request_box
124Chronological Files1991request_box
125Chronological Files1992request_box
126Chronological Files1993request_box
21Chronological Files1994request_box
22Chronological Files1995request_box
23Chronological Files1996request_box
24Chronological Files1997request_box
25Chronological Files1998-1999request_box
26Subject Files - Staten Island National Council of Jewish Women - Clippings of Speakers at Jewish Community Center1933-1935request_box
27Subject Files - Pelham Jewish Center Legal Suit1953-1963request_box
28Subject Files - Travel - Ethiopia1965request_box
29Subject Files - Travel - Ethiopia1975-1976request_box
216Subject Files - Travel - Ethiopia - Report1975
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210Subject Files - Letters from Israel1974-1975
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211Subject Files - Diaries from Israel1977
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212Subject Files - Graenum & Emma Berger Scholarship Fund at Hebrew University 1994, 1999request_box
213Awards/Honors - Graenum Berger Day in PelhamNovember 23, 1997request_box
214Awards/Honors - Induction as Fellow of the Jewish Academy of Arts & SciencesMay 11, 1982request_box
215Awards/Honors - Miscellaneous1962, 1968, 1973, 1978request_box
66 1 Assorted Correspondence and News Clippings undated, 1929, 1954, 1986, 1988-1989, 1993, 1996-1999 request_box
66 2 Correspondence with Louis Kraft 1957-1958, 1968, 1972, 1974 request_box
66 3 Doctorate from Yeshiva University (contains photographs) undated, 1973 request_box
66 4 Certified Social Worker undated, 1945, 1968-1970, 1978, 1982 request_box
66 5 Awards 1982, 1985, 1990 request_box
66 6 65th Birthday and Retirement Thank You Letters A-L 1973 request_box
66 7 65th Birthday and Retirement Thank You Letters M-Z 1973 request_box
66 8 65th Birthday and Retirement Birthday Cards and Miscellaneous 1973 request_box
66 9 90th Birthday undated, 1997-2000 request_box
67 1 “In Search of the Origins/Name of” Graenum undated, 1896, 1922, 1956, 1967, 1974-1975, 1977-1979, 1981, 1983-1984, 1987-1988, 1993-1994, 1997 request_box
  (contains Yiddish)   
67 2 Personal, undated, 1988, 1993, 1995-1998 request_box
67 3 Bronx House Alumni Letters, undated, 1952, 1956, 1964, 1984, 1986-1987, 1990, 1998 request_box
67 4-5 Pelham Jewish Center undated, 1954, 1961, 1969, 1976, 1981, 1986-1997, 1999 request_box
68 1-3 West Bronx Jewish Federation Service Center undated, 1985, 1987-1994, 2001 request_box
68 4 UJA-Federation of New York – Oral History Project 1982, 1984, 1988, 1991, 1993, 1995 request_box
68 5 United Jewish Appeal – Women’s Division of Pelham 1965, 1967-1968, 1972-1973 request_box
68 6 KTAV Publishing 1988-1989 request_box
68 7 Miscellaneous News Clippings and Mailings undated, 1957, 1998, 2000-2002 request_box
  (contains Yiddish)   
69 1 Passports request_box
69 2-3 “An Ambassador So Feisty – The World of Sam Berger” (A Biography/Autobiography) (1st Draft) 1961-1989 request_box
69 4-5 “A Not So Silent Envoy – The World of Ambassador Samuel David Berger” – A Biography (1st draft), by Graenum Berger 1911-1961 request_box
69 6-7 “A Not So Silent Envoy – The World of Ambassador Samuel David Berger” – A Biography (2nd draft), by Graenum Berger August 29, 1990 request_box
70 1-2 “A Not So Silent Envoy – The World of Samuel David Berger” – A Biography (Second Draft), by Graenum Berger August 29, 1990 request_box
70 3-4 “A Not So Silent Envoy – The World of Ambassador Samuel David Berger” – A Biography (2nd Draft, Not Corrected Copy), by Graenum Berger August 29, 1990 request_box
70 5 Samuel Berger Obituary (contains photographs) 1979-1980 request_box
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Series II: Writings, undated, 1932-1999

The series is in English.
Boxes 3-6

This series is arranged by genre, and then chronologically within each genre.

Scope and Content:

Series II contains Berger's writings on a range of topics, such as Ethiopian Jewry, Jewish Social Work issues, Black Jews, a biography of Berger's brother who was a United States diplomat, Berger's own autobiography, American Jewish history, and miscellaneous other topics. Berger's writings consist of many different genres, such as manuscripts, journal articles, speeches, edited works, book reviews, and newspaper pieces. Researchers should be aware that the folder titles of the manuscript versions were taken from Berger's own folders; a determination of their accuracy was not possible, and that titles are not consistent across manuscripts. Also, some of Berger's works do not contain drafts, and, most notably, the collection does not include any manuscripts of Graenum, Berger's autobiography. This series contains major magazine articles written by Berger, however minor magazine pieces, as well as numerous Letters to the Editor, which Berger wrote as part of his advocacy on behalf of Ethiopian Jewry, appear in Series III, AAEJ, Clippings folders. The folder containing Berger's writings on various topics (Box 6, Folder 9) contains a script for a synagogue play he wrote in honor of the 1976 U.S. Bicentennial, and an anthology of some of his writings on group social work.

31Manuscripts - A Pictorial History of the United States - Bound Copy1975request_box
32 Manuscripts - A Pictorial History of the United States - Unbound Copy 1975-1978request_box
33Manuscripts - Black Jews in America - First Manuscriptundatedrequest_box
34Manuscripts - Black Jews in America - Draft Revisions 1976-1978request_box
35 Manuscripts - Black Jews in America - Original1978request_box
36Manuscripts - Black Jews in America - Publication1977-1980request_box
37Manuscripts - Black Jews in America - Clippings1978-1980request_box
38Manuscripts - Black Jews in America - Publicityundated, 1978-1980request_box
41 Manuscripts - Black Jews in America - Correspondence1978-1981, 1986, 1987 request_box
42Manuscripts - Beta Israel-Ethiopian Jews - Falashas, First Draftundatedrequest_box
43Manuscripts - Beta Israel-Ethiopian Jews- Falashas, Final Draft1979-1984request_box
44Manuscripts - Graenum - Removed Pages 1986request_box
45Manuscripts - Graenum - Reviews 1993, 1999request_box
46 Manuscripts - Graenum - Addendaundatedrequest_box
47Manuscripts - Graenum - Copies of Pictures Usedundated, 1906, 1918, 1982request_box
48Manuscripts - A Not So Silent Envoy - First Manuscript Draftundatedrequest_box
49Manuscripts - A Not So Silent Envoy - Final Manuscript Draftundatedrequest_box
410Manuscripts - A Not So Silent Envoy - Clippings1992-1993request_box
411Manuscripts - Rescue the Ethiopian Jews! - Original Copy 1995-1996request_box
51 Manuscripts - Rescue the Ethiopian Jews! - Revised Manuscript Draft1997 request_box
5 2Manuscripts - Rescue the Ethiopian Jews! - Input from AAEJ Members1993, 1995request_box
53Manuscripts - Rescue the Ethiopian Jews! - Correspondenceundated, 1997request_box
54Manuscripts - Rescue the Ethiopian Jews! - Publication Informationundated, 1997request_box
55Manuscripts - Rescue the Ethiopian Jews! - Clippings 1997-1998request_box
56 Master's Thesis - A Quantitative Analysis of the Content of Jewish Center Publications 1932request_box
57Newspaper/Magazine Articles - Jewish Frontier - "An Open Letter to the Labor Zionist Movement"1974request_box
58Newspaper/Magazine Articles - Congress Bi-Weekly - "The Plight of the Falashas"October 25, 1974request_box
59Newspaper/Magazine Articles - Present Tense - "The Tragedy of Ethiopian Jews"Spring 1978request_box
510 Newspaper/Magazine Articles - Moment - "Double Jeopardy: Oppression of Ethiopian Jews"November 1978request_box
5 11 Newspaper/Magazine Articles - Jewish Frontier - "The Falashas - Outcasts Of Israel"August/September 1980request_box
512Newspaper/Magazine Articles - Various - Ethiopian Jewry 1977, 1980, 1981, 1989-1990request_box
513Newspaper/Magazine Articles - Various - Other Topics1948, 1968, 1972, 1974request_box
61 Journal Articles - American Jewish Communal Service, 1776-1976,1976 request_box
6 2Edited Works - The Turbulent Decades, Vol.11981request_box
63Edited Works - The Turbulent Decades, Vol. 21981request_box
64Book Reviews - Ethiopian Jewry1987request_box
65 Book Reviews - Various Topics 1964-1965, 1968, 1972-1974, 1976request_box
66Speeches - Ethiopian Jewry1977, 1982, 1985 request_box
6 7Speeches - Various Topics1977, 1983request_box
68Other Writings - Ethiopian Jewry1981, 1995, 1998request_box
69Other Writings - Various Topics1948, 1973, 1977, 1978request_box
610Reviews of Berger's Writings1966, 1976request_box
611Lists of Berger's Books in Libraries1994, 1995request_box
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Series III: Early Rescue & Relief Efforts, 1961-1974

The series is in English.
Boxes 7-8

The information is arranged in chronological files, except for some materials organized into subjects, which are maintained chronologically internally.

Researchers should note that there is some overlap with these chronological files and the AAEJ chronological files in Series IV, since Berger's advocacy for Ethiopian Jewry, and the contacts he established who later were involved with the AAEJ, began during this early period before the AAEJ was formally launched.

Scope and Content:

Series III contains information about early efforts, both individual and organizational, that existed to help Ethiopian Jewry which Berger explored and, in some cases, was involved with, prior to the formation of the American Association for Ethiopian Jews in 1973. The materials primarily include Berger's correspondence with people such as Dr. Aryeh Tartakower of the World Jewish Congress (Israel) and Professor Norman Bentwich and David Kessler of the Falasha Welfare Association (London), with whom he communicated regarding raising funds for medical care for Ethiopian Jewry.

71Chronological Files1961-1965request_box
710Chronological Files 1964-1974
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72Chronological Files 1966request_box
73Chronological Files1967request_box
74Chronological Files 1968-1969request_box
75 Chronological Files1970 request_box
7 6Chronological Files1971request_box
77 Chronological FilesJanuary-October 1972request_box
78Chronological FilesNovember-December 1972request_box
79Chronological FilesJanuary-May 1973request_box
81Chronological Files June-December 1973request_box
82Chronological Files 1974request_box
83Subject Files - American Pro-Falasha Committee1966-1969request_box
84Subject Files - British Organisatio Sanitaria Ebraica (OSE) 1966-1970request_box
85 Subject Files - Gettye, Benjamin1966, 1968request_box
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Series IV: American Association for Ethiopian Jews (AAEJ), undated, 1954-1997

The series is in English, Hebrew, Amharic.
Boxes 8-43, Oversized Box 65, Folders 1-5, Map Folder 1

Chronological files and clippings are arranged by year, with the clippings folders interspersed within the chronological files at the end of each year. The subject files are arranged alphabetically.

Scope and Content:

Series IV contains Berger's materials from the AAEJ, collected during the years in which it was advocating for the rescue of Ethiopian Jewry. The Chronological Files contain many internal reports, correspondence, strategy statements, meeting minutes, notes and memoranda. The series also contains numerous reports and brochures from other organizations involved with Ethiopian Jewry, and Berger's assessment of their efforts. The clippings, consisting of articles that discuss AAEJ or quote its members, are arranged by year, and are filed within the chronological series. The numerous Subject Files include AAEJ incorporation documents, financial statements, files on individuals active in the organization, files on Ethiopian Jews involved with the AAEJ, materials on other organizations Berger interacted with in his efforts to advocate for the Beta Israel's rescue, and specific AAEJ projects. Researchers should be aware that the subject files were, for the most part, taken directly from Berger's original organization of the materials, and that additional information on some of the topics of the subject files is contained in the chronological files. This is especially true for individuals or organizations that were very involved with the AAEJ. Therefore, both places should be checked for information on these subjects. Of particular note in the series is the subject file for Yona Bogale , (Box 35, Folder 17) which contains an original letter to Berger, dated October, 1965, from three Ethiopian cohanim, signed as the "Outcasts of Israel", requesting his assistance in their rescue. The subject file Religious Issues/Decisions (Box 42, Folders 9,10) contains key decisions from recent Jewish history relating to the status of the Beta Israel. Additionally, the subject files entitled Proposed Layout for Ads (Box 42, Folder 4) and Obituary Notices (Box 41, Folder 7) are illustrative of some of the methods considered and used by the AAEJ to raise awareness of their cause, and which resulted in it being somewhat ostracized within the organized Jewish establishment.

86AAEJ, Chronological Files undatedrequest_box
87AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippingsundated request_box
2512AAEJ, Chronological Files, Ethiopian Israeli Activists1966-1988
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2513AAEJ, Chronological Files, Simon Messing1968-1983
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1011AAEJ, Chronological Files, Yona Bogale1972-1987
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1611AAEJ, Chronological Files, Decisions of Chief Rabbis1973-1981
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8 8AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary-April 1974request_box
89AAEJ, Chronological Files May-June 1974request_box
810AAEJ, Chronological Files July-August 1974request_box
811AAEJ, Chronological Files September-December 1974request_box
812AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1974request_box
813AAEJ, Chronological Files 1975request_box
911AAEJ, Chronological Files 1975
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2510AAEJ, Chronological Files, Avraham Yerday 1975
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814AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary-April 1975
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91AAEJ, Chronological FilesMay-December 1975 request_box
258AAEJ, Chronological Files, Henry Rosenberg1975-1983
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92AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1975request_box
93AAEJ, Chronological Files 1976request_box
94AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary-March 1976request_box
95AAEJ, Chronological FilesApril-August 1976request_box
96AAEJ, Chronological Files September-December 1976request_box
97AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1976request_box
98AAEJ, Chronological Files 1977request_box
99AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary-March 1977request_box
910AAEJ, Chronological FilesApril-August 1977request_box
101AAEJ, Chronological Files September-December 1977request_box
1010AAEJ, Chronological Files, Baruch Tegegne 1977-1988
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1013AAEJ, Chronological Files, Zimna Berhane 1977-1992
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102AAEJ, Chronological File, Clippings1977request_box
103AAEJ, Chronological Files 1978request_box
104AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary-February 1978request_box
105AAEJ, Chronological FilesMarch-May 1978request_box
106AAEJ, Chronological Files June 1978request_box
107 AAEJ, Chronological FilesJuly 1978request_box
108AAEJ, Chronological FilesAugust 1978request_box
109AAEJ, Chronological FilesSeptember-October 1978request_box
111AAEJ, Chronological Files November 1978request_box
119AAEJ, Chronological Files November 1978-April 1979
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112AAEJ, Chronological Files December 1978request_box
1015AAEJ, Chronological Files, Correspondence re Members of Knesset and Government 1978-1991
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2514AAEJ, Chronological Files, General Correspondence 1978-1991
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259AAEJ, Chronological Files, Rachamim Elazar 1978-1984
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113AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1978request_box
114AAEJ, Chronological Files 1979request_box
814AAEJ, Chronological Files, Graenum Berger Letter 1979request_box
115AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 1979 request_box
11 6AAEJ, Chronological FilesFebruary 1979request_box
117AAEJ, Chronological Files March 1979request_box
118 AAEJ, Chronological FilesApril 1979request_box
121AAEJ, Chronological FilesMay 1979request_box
122AAEJ, Chronological Files June 1-10, 1979request_box
123AAEJ, Chronological FilesJune 11-30, 1979request_box
129AAEJ, Chronological FilesJune-November 1979
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124AAEJ, Chronological FilesJuly-August 1979request_box
125AAEJ, Chronological Files September 1979request_box
126AAEJ, Chronological Files October 1979request_box
1210AAEJ, Chronological Files, Demonstration Banner (Hebrew) October 1979
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127AAEJ, Chronological Files November 1-14, 1979request_box
128AAEJ, Chronological Files November 15-30, 1979request_box
131AAEJ, Chronological Files December 1979request_box
1310AAEJ, Chronological Files, Canadian Association for Ethiopian Jews, Association of Ethiopian Jews, LA Federation 1979-1980
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1311Ethiopian Jews in Sudan 1979-1980
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132AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1979request_box
133AAEJ, Chronological Files 1980request_box
148AAEJ, Chronological Files, CJF GA 1980
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134AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 1-16, 1980request_box
135AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 17-31, 1980request_box
136AAEJ, Chronological Files February 1980request_box
137AAEJ, Chronological Files March 1-16, 1980request_box
138AAEJ, Chronological Files March 17-31, 1980request_box
139AAEJ, Chronological Files April 1980request_box
141 AAEJ, Chronological FilesMay 1980request_box
14 2AAEJ, Chronological FilesJune 1980request_box
143AAEJ, Chronological FilesJuly 1980request_box
144AAEJ, Chronological FilesAugust 1980request_box
145AAEJ, Chronological Files September 1980request_box
146AAEJ, Chronological Files October 1980request_box
147 AAEJ, Chronological FilesNovember 1980request_box
151AAEJ, Chronological FilesDecember 1980request_box
158AAEJ, Chronological FilesDecember 1980-April 1981
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152AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1980 request_box
15 3AAEJ, Chronological Files1981request_box
154AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 1981request_box
155AAEJ, Chronological FilesFebruary 1981request_box
156AAEJ, Chronological Files March 1981request_box
157 AAEJ, Chronological FilesApril 1-14, 1981request_box
161AAEJ, Chronological FilesApril 15-30, 1981request_box
1610AAEJ, Chronological FilesApril-October 1981
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162AAEJ, Chronological FilesMay 1-14, 1981request_box
163AAEJ, Chronological Files May 15-31, 1981request_box
164AAEJ, Chronological Files June 1-14, 1981request_box
165AAEJ, Chronological Files June 15-30, 1981request_box
166AAEJ, Chronological Files July 1981request_box
167 AAEJ, Chronological FilesAugust 1981request_box
168AAEJ, Chronological FilesSeptember 1981request_box
169AAEJ, Chronological FilesOctober 1-15, 1981request_box
171AAEJ, Chronological Files October 16-31, 1981request_box
178AAEJ, Chronological Files October 1981-1982
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172AAEJ, Chronological Files November 1-15, 1981request_box
173AAEJ, Chronological Files November 16-30, 1981request_box
174AAEJ, Chronological Files December 1-15, 1981request_box
175AAEJ, Chronological Files December 16-31, 1981request_box
176AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1981request_box
177AAEJ, Chronological Files 1982request_box
198AAEJ, Chronological Files, Simcha Jacobovici Film 1982
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181AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 1982request_box
187AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary-April 1982
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182AAEJ, Chronological FilesFebruary 1-12, 1982request_box
183AAEJ, Chronological Files February 13-28, 1982request_box
184AAEJ, Chronological Files March 1-21, 1982request_box
185AAEJ, Chronological Files March 22-31, 1982request_box
186AAEJ, Chronological Files April 1982request_box
191 AAEJ, Chronological FilesMay 1982request_box
197 AAEJ, Chronological FilesMay-August 1982
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19 2AAEJ, Chronological FilesJune 1-14, 1982request_box
193AAEJ, Chronological FilesJune 15-31, 1982request_box
194AAEJ, Chronological FilesJuly 1982request_box
195AAEJ, Chronological Files August 1-14, 1982request_box
196AAEJ, Chronological Files August 15-31, 1982request_box
201AAEJ, Chronological Files September 1982request_box
206AAEJ, Chronological Files September-December 1982
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202AAEJ, Chronological Files October 1-14, 1982request_box
203AAEJ, Chronological Files October 15-31, 1982request_box
205AAEJ, Chronological Files December 1-19, 1982request_box
211AAEJ, Chronological Files December 20-31, 1982request_box
212AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1982request_box
213AAEJ, Chronological Files 1983request_box
248AAEJ, Chronological Files, Important Documents 1983
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1012AAEJ, Chronological Files, Simcha Jacobovici - "Exile of the Black Jews" 1983
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217AAEJ, Chronological Files, Simcha Jacobovici - "Exile of the Black Jews" 1983
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214AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 1-16, 1983request_box
215AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 17-31, 1983request_box
216AAEJ, Chronological Files February 1-14, 1983request_box
221AAEJ, Chronological Files February 15-28, 1983request_box
222AAEJ, Chronological Files March 1-15, 1983request_box
223AAEJ, Chronological Files March 16-31, 1983request_box
224AAEJ, Chronological Files April 1-12, 1983request_box
225AAEJ, Chronological Files April 13-30, 1983request_box
226AAEJ, Chronological Files May 1-10, 1983request_box
227AAEJ, Chronological Files May 11-31, 1983request_box
231AAEJ, Chronological Files June 1-16, 1983request_box
232AAEJ, Chronological Files June 17-30, 1983request_box
233AAEJ, Chronological Files July 1983request_box
234 AAEJ, Chronological FilesAugust 1983request_box
235AAEJ, Chronological FilesSeptember 1983request_box
236AAEJ, Chronological FilesOctober 1-17, 1983request_box
241AAEJ, Chronological Files October 18-31, 1983request_box
242AAEJ, Chronological Files November 1983request_box
243AAEJ, Chronological Files December 1-17, 1983request_box
244AAEJ, Chronological Files December 18-31, 1983request_box
1014AAEJ, Chronological Files, Gedaliah Uria 1983-1991
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245AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1983request_box
246AAEJ, Chronological Files 1984request_box
267AAEJ, Chronological Files, American Activists 1984
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278AAEJ, Chronological Files, Operation Moses, Sudan, Ethiopia 1984
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247AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 1-15, 1984request_box
251AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 16-31, 1984request_box
252AAEJ, Chronological Files February 1-16, 1984request_box
253AAEJ, Chronological Files February 17-29, 1984request_box
254AAEJ, Chronological Files March 1-20, 1984request_box
255AAEJ, Chronological Files March 21-31, 1984request_box
256AAEJ, Chronological Files April 1-12, 1984request_box
257AAEJ, Chronological Files April 13-30, 1984request_box
261AAEJ, Chronological Files May 1-13, 1984request_box
262AAEJ, Chronological Files May 14-31, 1984request_box
263AAEJ, Chronological Files June 1984request_box
264 AAEJ, Chronological FilesJuly 1984request_box
265AAEJ, Chronological FilesAugust 1984request_box
266AAEJ, Chronological FilesSeptember 1984request_box
271AAEJ, Chronological Files October 1-20, 1984request_box
272AAEJ, Chronological Files October 21-31, 1984request_box
273AAEJ, Chronological Files November 1-15, 1984request_box
274AAEJ, Chronological Files November 16-30, 1984request_box
275AAEJ, Chronological Files December 1-13, 1984request_box
276AAEJ, Chronological Files December 14-31, 1984request_box
3015AAEJ, Chronological Files, Ethiopian Israelis - General 1984-1987
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2511AAEJ, Chronological Files, Matti Elias 1984-1985
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3014AAEJ, Chronological Files, US and Israel Government Officials 1984-1987
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277AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1984request_box
281AAEJ, Chronological Files 1985request_box
282AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 1-22, 1985request_box
283AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 23-31, 1985 request_box
284AAEJ, Chronological Files February 1-17, 1985 request_box
285AAEJ, Chronological Files February 18-28, 1985 request_box
286AAEJ, Chronological Files March 1985 request_box
287 AAEJ, Chronological FilesApril 1985request_box
288AAEJ, Chronological FilesMay 1985request_box
291AAEJ, Chronological Files June 1985 request_box
292 AAEJ, Chronological FilesJuly-August 1985 request_box
293AAEJ, Chronological FilesSeptember-October 1985request_box
294AAEJ, Chronological Files November 1985request_box
295AAEJ, Chronological Files December 1985request_box
2912AAEJ, Chronological Files, Israel and US Government Officials Correspondence 1985-1986
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2911AAEJ, Chronological Files, Significant Correspondence 1985-1986
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296AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1985request_box
297AAEJ, Chronological Files 1986request_box
298AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 1986request_box
299AAEJ, Chronological FilesFebruary 1986request_box
2910AAEJ, Chronological Files March 1986request_box
301 AAEJ, Chronological FilesApril 1986request_box
302AAEJ, Chronological FilesMay 1986request_box
303AAEJ, Chronological Files June 1986request_box
304 AAEJ, Chronological FilesJuly 1986request_box
305AAEJ, Chronological FilesAugust 1986request_box
306AAEJ, Chronological Files September 1986request_box
307AAEJ, Chronological Files October 1986request_box
308AAEJ, Chronological Files November 1986request_box
309AAEJ, Chronological Files December 1986request_box
3010AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1986request_box
3011AAEJ, Chronological Files 1987request_box
3012 AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 1987request_box
3013AAEJ, Chronological FilesFebruary 1987request_box
311AAEJ, Chronological FilesMarch 1987request_box
312AAEJ, Chronological FilesApril 1987request_box
313AAEJ, Chronological Files May 1987request_box
314 AAEJ, Chronological FilesJune 1987request_box
315AAEJ, Chronological FilesJuly 1987request_box
316AAEJ, Chronological FilesAugust 1987request_box
317AAEJ, Chronological Files September 1987request_box
318AAEJ, Chronological Files October 1987request_box
319AAEJ, Chronological Files November 1987request_box
3110AAEJ, Chronological Files December 1987request_box
3115AAEJ, Chronological Files, Significant Correspondence and Writings 1987-1988
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3111AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1987request_box
3112AAEJ, Chronological Files January-March 1988request_box
3113AAEJ, Chronological Files April-June 1988request_box
3114AAEJ, Chronological Files July-September 1988request_box
321AAEJ, Chronological Files October 1988request_box
322 AAEJ, Chronological FilesNovember-December 1988request_box
3215 AAEJ, Chronological Files, Operation Solomon and AAEJ Board Meetings1988-1991
  View the item 
323AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1988 request_box
32 4AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary-March 1989request_box
325AAEJ, Chronological Files April-June 1989request_box
326AAEJ, Chronological Files July-September 1989request_box
327AAEJ, Chronological Files October-December 1989request_box
328AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1989request_box
329AAEJ, Chronological Files 1990request_box
3210 AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary-April 1990request_box
3211 AAEJ, Chronological FilesMay-August 1990request_box
3212 AAEJ, Chronological FilesSeptember-December 1990request_box
3213 AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1990request_box
3214 AAEJ, Chronological Files1991
  View the item 
33 1AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary 1991request_box
332AAEJ, Chronological Files February 1991request_box
333AAEJ, Chronological Files March 1991request_box
335 AAEJ, Chronological FilesMay 1991request_box
33 6AAEJ, Chronological FilesJune 1991request_box
337AAEJ, Chronological FilesJuly 1991request_box
338AAEJ, Chronological FilesAugust 1991request_box
339AAEJ, Chronological Files September 1991request_box
3310AAEJ, Chronological Files October 1991request_box
3311 AAEJ, Chronological FilesNovember 1991request_box
3312 AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1991request_box
3313 AAEJ, Chronological FilesJanuary-June 1992request_box
3314 AAEJ, Chronological FilesJuly-December 1992request_box
3315 AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1992request_box
3316 AAEJ, Chronological Files1993 request_box
3317 AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1993request_box
3318 AAEJ, Chronological Files1994 request_box
3322 AAEJ, Chronological Files, IAEJ1994
  View the item 
33 19AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1994request_box
3320AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1996request_box
3321AAEJ, Chronological Files, Clippings1997request_box
341AAEJ Subject Files, Absorption Studies/Issuesundated, 1983-1985 request_box
342AAEJ Subject Files, Alpert, Bernard & Frances1973-1979request_box
343AAEJ Subject Files, American Jewish Committee1974-1977request_box
344AAEJ Subject Files, American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee1973-1975 request_box
34 5AAEJ Subject Files, American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee 1976request_box
346AAEJ Subject Files, American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee1977-1979
  View the item 
347AAEJ Subject Files, American Mizrachi Women
[See also Box 65, Folder 1]
undated, 1981-1982request_box
348AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1976 request_box
34 9AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1977request_box
3410AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1978request_box
3411AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1979request_box
3412AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1980request_box
351AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1981request_box
352AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1982request_box
353AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1984request_box
354AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1985request_box
355AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1986request_box
356AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1987request_box
357AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1988request_box
358AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1989request_box
359AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1990request_box
3510AAEJ Subject Files, Annual MeetingJune 1991request_box
3511AAEJ Subject Files, Annual MeetingNovember 1991request_box
3512AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1992request_box
3513AAEJ Subject Files, Annual Meeting1993request_box
3514AAEJ Subject Files, Articles of Incorporation1975-1977, 1980request_box
3515AAEJ Subject Files, Belay, Getachew1974-1976request_box
3516AAEJ Subject Files, Berhane, Zimna1976-1977
  View the item 
3517AAEJ Subject Files, Bogale, Yona1965-1977, 1987
  View the item 
3518AAEJ Subject Files, Bonder, Bayla1977-1978request_box
3519AAEJ Subject Files, Brotherhood Synagogue (Torah, Tefillin & Tallesim) 1976request_box
361AAEJ Subject Files, Chicago Fundraising1981-1982 request_box
362AAEJ Subject Files, Cohen, Aaron1976-1977request_box
363AAEJ Subject Files, Cohen, Gabriel (Post & Opinion)1973-1978request_box
364AAEJ Subject Files, Cohen, Gloria, letters from Rivka1977-1985
  View the item 
365AAEJ Subject Files, Conditions of Ethiopian Jews in1978-1979
  View the item 
366AAEJ Subject Files, Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations1976-1978request_box
367AAEJ Subject Files, Council of Jewish Federations & Welfare Funds1973-1981request_box
368AAEJ Subject Files, Council of Jewish Federations & Welfare Funds, General Assembly 1976request_box
369AAEJ Subject Files, Council of Jewish Federations & Welfare Funds, General Assembly1982request_box
3610AAEJ Subject Files, Council on Falasha Jewry- Maibaum, Menachem1974-1975 request_box
36 11AAEJ Subject Files, Cuba1978-1979request_box
3612AAEJ Subject Files, Elazar, Rachamim1983-1984
  View the item 
3613AAEJ Subject Files, Ethiopian Jewish Prayer1975
  View the item 
3614AAEJ Subject Files, Executive Search1981request_box
3615AAEJ Subject Files, Falasha Welfare Association - Batia1975-1976 request_box
3616AAEJ Subject Files, Falasha Welfare Association - Kessler, Davidundated, 1970-1974request_box
371AAEJ Subject Files, Falasha Welfare Association - Kessler, David 1975-1976
  View the item 
372 AAEJ Subject Files, Falasha Welfare Association - Kessler, David1977-1979
  View the item 
373AAEJ Subject Files, Falasha Welfare Association - Levi, Boaz Gondar 1974-1975
  View the item 
374AAEJ Subject Files, Falasha Welfare Association - Levy, Gershon undated, 1974-June 1976
  View the item 
375AAEJ Subject Files, Falasha Welfare Association - Levy, Gershon July 1976-1977request_box
376AAEJ Subject Files, Family Reunification for Ethiopian Jews1981
  View the item 
377AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Bequest - Kottle, Louis1974-1981request_box
378AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Contribution & Deposit Records1974, 1976-1978 (closed)request_box
379AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Contribution & Deposit Records1979-1980 (closed)request_box
3710AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Contribution & Deposit Records 1981-1982 (closed)request_box
3711 AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Contribution & Deposit Records1983 (closed)request_box
3712AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Contribution & Deposit Records 1984 (closed)request_box
381AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Contribution & Deposit Records1985-1986 (closed)request_box
382AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Contribution & Deposit Records1987 (closed)request_box
383AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Contribution & Deposit Records1988 (closed)request_box
384AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Contribution & Deposit Records1989 (closed)request_box
385AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Contribution & Deposit Records1991 (closed)request_box
386AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Expenses1976-1982request_box
387AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Scholarship Funds1977-1979, 1983-1987 (closed)request_box
388AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Statements and Budgets1986-1988request_box
389AAEJ Subject Files, Fiscal Records - Statements & Budgets1990-1991request_box
3810AAEJ Subject Files, Freund-Rosenthal, Miriam1973-1983request_box
3811AAEJ Subject Files, Gerson, Lester & Sylvia1973-1978request_box
3812AAEJ Subject Files, Goldberg, Brett (Chaim)1983-1984request_box
3813AAEJ Subject Files, Gross, Michael- Jewish Student Press Service Article 1974request_box
3814AAEJ Subject Files, Gottlieb, Dr. I.1975-1980request_box
391AAEJ Subject Files, Halpern, William1976-1978
  View the item 
392AAEJ Subject Files, Halpern, William1979-1984
  View the item 
393AAEJ Subject Files, Hebrew University ForumAugust 15, 1977request_box
394AAEJ Subject Files, Hezi, Ovadiah1973-1976
  View the item 
395AAEJ Subject Files, ICA - Mordechai Paran1974-1978
  View the item 
396AAEJ Subject Files, AAEJ Information Packet1983
  View the item 
397AAEJ Subject Files, International Rescue Committee1977-1979
  View the item 
398AAEJ Subject Files, International Rescue Committee1981-1983
  View the item 
399AAEJ Subject Files, Israel Attitude toward Falashas -1975
  View the item 
3910AAEJ Subject Files, Jacobovici, Simcha
[See also Oversized Box 65, Folder 2]
1983-1985, 1990request_box
401AAEJ Subject Files, Jewish Agency1973-1985
  View the item 
402AAEJ Subject Files, Jewish Media Services1975-1981request_box
403AAEJ Subject Files, Kaye, Julian1974-1975
  View the item 
404AAEJ Subject Files, Kulick, Gilbert1974-1975, 1977
  View the item 
405AAEJ Subject Files, AAEJ Leaflets, Information Sheets, Reprintsundated, 1975-1985request_box
406AAEJ Subject Files, Lenhoff, Howard 1974-1975request_box
407AAEJ Subject Files, Lenhoff, Howard1976request_box
408AAEJ Subject Files, Lenhoff, Howard1977request_box
411AAEJ Subject Files, Lenhoff, Howard1978
  View the item 
412AAEJ Subject Files, Levin, Meyer & Tereska1974-1985
  View the item 
413AAEJ Subject Files, Lobbying, Israeli Government1973-1983
  View the item 
414AAEJ Subject Files, Lobbying, U.S. Government Officials1976-1980
  View the item 
41 5AAEJ Subject Files, National Jewish Community Relations Advisory Council1974-1981request_box
416AAEJ Subject Files, New York State Legislative Resolution1983request_box
417AAEJ Subject Files, Obituary Notice - Ethiopian Jewry1982
  View the item 
418AAEJ Subject Files, Organization for Rehabilitation & Training (ORT)1959-1978request_box
419AAEJ Subject Files, ORTJanuary-April 1979request_box
4110AAEJ Subject Files, ORT May-December 1979request_box
421AAEJ Subject Files, ORT 1980-1982request_box
422 AAEJ Subject Files, ORT - Canadian1974-1979request_box
423AAEJ Subject Files, Parfitt, Tudor - Response to Operation Moses 1985-1986request_box
424 AAEJ Subject Files, Posters
[See Oversized Materials Box 65 Folder 3 and MAP 1]
42 5AAEJ Subject Files, Proposed Layout for Ads
[See also Oversized Box 65, Folder 4]
426AAEJ Subject Files, Publicity Campaign Layouts
[See Oversized Materials Box 65, Folder 5
427AAEJ Subject Files, Ramati, Shaul1978 request_box
42 8AAEJ Subject Files, Rapoport, Louis1974-1987, 1991request_box
429AAEJ Subject Files, Refugee Lists1978
  View the item 
42 10AAEJ Subject Files, Release - AAEJ Publication 1983-1993
  View the item 
42 11AAEJ Subject Files, Religious Issues/Decisions1864-1985
  View the item 
4212AAEJ Subject Files, Religious Issues/Decisions, Clippingsundated, 1966-1986 request_box
42 13AAEJ Subject Files, Rosenberg, Henry & Mildred1975-1978
  View the item 
42 14AAEJ Subject Files, School Admissions Letter for Ethiopian Jewish Students1977
  View the item 
4215AAEJ Subject Files, Shapiro, Nathan 1978-1980request_box
4218AAEJ Subject Files, Shapiro, Nathan 1978-1980
  View the item 
4216AAEJ Subject Files, Siev, Hadasundated request_box
42 17AAEJ Subject Files, Student Leadership Paper #11977request_box
431AAEJ Subject Files, Synagogue Council of America1973request_box
432AAEJ Subject Files, Tartakower, Aryeh undated
  View the item 
433AAEJ Subject Files, Tartakower, Aryeh 1970-1974
  View the item 
434AAEJ Subject Files, Tartakower, Aryeh1975
  View the item 
435AAEJ Subject Files, Tartakower, Aryeh1976
  View the item 
436AAEJ Subject Files, Tartakower, Aryeh1977-1978
  View the item 
437AAEJ Subject Files, Tegegne, Baruch1979-1990
  View the item 
438AAEJ Subject Files, Turgemann, Eli1979-1980
  View the item 
439AAEJ Subject Files, United Synagogue of America1976-1977request_box
4310AAEJ Subject Files, Weise, Barry1977-1978request_box
4311AAEJ Subject Files, Williams, John1977-1984request_box
4312AAEJ Subject Files, World Jewish Congress - Klotznick, Philip1975-1979 request_box
4313AAEJ Subject Files, Yitzhak, Rachamim1982
  View the item 
4314AAEJ Subject Files, Yona, Zechariah1974-1977
  View the item 
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Series V: Ethiopian Jewry,  undated, [1825]-2002

The series is in English, Hebrew, Amharic, French, and German.
Boxes 44-55

Research files, clippings, and information about organizations and events for Ethiopian Jewry are arranged chronologically. Manuscripts, articles, book chapters and books are arranged by author.

Scope and Content:

This series consists of materials collected by Berger on Ethiopian Jewry. The research files consist of numerous book excerpts and Berger's notes from various works about and references to Ethiopian Jewry. Researchers should be aware that for files in this series dated prior to the 1960s when Berger became involved with Ethiopian Jewry, the dates correspond to when the underlying source document Berger used was created or published, and is not the date of the physical document in the collection. Of particular note in the research files are copies of minutes and correspondence from an early advocacy group founded by Jacques Faitlovitch, the American Pro-Falasha Committee, which was active during the 1920s-1940s and was one of the organizations that Berger merged to establish the AAEJ. Berger obtained the American Pro-Falasha Committee documents from the American Jewish Committee Archives. The subjects of Operations Moses and Solomon, and Absorption into Israel are well represented in the clippings. The journals and book chapters contain extensive information regarding the origins and culture of the Beta Israel, and religious issues and decisions regarding their acceptance as Jews. The series includes such pioneering works on the study of Ethiopian Jewry as a copy of J.M Flad's 1869 book The Falashas, (Box 46, Folder 11) and Jacques Faitlovitch' 1959 Travels to the Falashas(Box 46, Folder 10). Berger's materials about other organizations and events on behalf of Ethiopian Jewry are included in this series. Berger's writings on Ethiopian Jewry are contained in Series II - Writings.

For a partial listing of writings contained within this Series on Ethiopian Jewry, see Appendix A: Ethiopian Jewry - Journal Articles, Historical/Political; Appendix B: Ethiopian Jewry - Journal Articles - Jewish Legal Analysis; Appendix C: Ethiopian Jewry - Journal Articles - Social Science/ Cultural; Appendix D: Ethiopian Jewry - Journal Articles - Reference; and Appendix E: Ethiopian Jewry - Book Chapters.

441Research Filesundatedrequest_box
442Research Files[1800-1899]request_box
443Research Files [1900-1919]request_box
445Research Files [1930-1931]request_box
446Research Files [1932-1935]request_box
447Research Files [1936-1939]request_box
448Research Files [1940-1949]request_box
449Research Files [1950-1959]request_box
4410Research Files 1960-1969request_box
451 Research Files1970-1979 request_box
45 2Research Files1980-1984request_box
453Research Files 1985-1986request_box
454 Research Files1987-1988 request_box
45 5Research Files1989request_box
456 Research Files1991 request_box
45 7Research Files1993request_box
458 Research Files1994 request_box
45 9Research Files1995-1996request_box
4510Research Files 1997request_box
4511 Research Files1998 request_box
45 12Research Files1999request_box
4513 Journal Articles - Historical/Political (Appendix A)misc.years.request_box
4514Journal Articles - Jewish Legal Analysis (Appendix B)misc. yearsrequest_box
4515Journal Articles - Jewish Legal Analysis, Saltzman, Steven, Critique of Rav Bleich's Article (unpublished)1987request_box
4516Journal Articles - Social Science/Cultural (Appendix C)misc. years request_box
461Journal Articles - Social Science/Cultural (Appendix C)misc. years request_box
462Journal Articles - Reference (Appendix D) misc. yearsrequest_box
463Book Chapters - Halevy, Joseph, Travels in Abyssinia1877request_box
464Book Chapters - Luzzato, M., Memoire sur les Juifs D'Abyssinie ou Falashas (copy)1851 request_box
46 5Book Sections, Miscellaneous, 1 of 2 (Appendix E) misc. yearsrequest_box
466Book Sections, Miscellaneous, 2 of 2 (Appendix E)misc. years request_box
46 7Journals - Pe'amim: Studies in the Cultural Heritage of Oriental Jewry 1985request_box
468Journals - The Religious Beliefs & Practices of the Ethiopian Jews in Israel 1988request_box
469Books - Faitlovitch, Jacques, Notes D'un Voyage Chez Les Falachas (photocopy)1905request_box
4610Books - Faitlovitch, Jacques, Travels to the Falashas1959request_box
4611 Books - Flad, J.M., The Falashas (copy)1869request_box
4612Manuscripts - Chanover, Hyman, The Falasha Jews 1980request_box
4613 Manuscripts - Faitlovitch, Jacques, Travels through Abyssinia (translated from German)1910 request_box
47 1Manuscripts - Hess, Robert L., An Outline of Falasha History1963request_box
472Manuscripts - Kashani, Reuben, The Falasha1975 request_box
473Manuscripts - Kaye, Jeffrey, On the Wings of Eagles1993request_box
47 4Manuscripts - Kupferschmid, Owen, The Right to Leave Any Country And International Refugee Law: A Case Study of the Falashas 1983request_box
475Manuscripts - Messing, Simon D., The Black Jews (Falashas) of Ethiopia 1978request_box
476Manuscripts - Morag, Boaz, The Falasha Jews1978 request_box
47 7Manuscripts - Rapoport, Louis, The Lost Jews1979request_box
478Manuscripts - Rosen, Chaim, Reports for Hadassah Council on Ethiopian Jewish Culture 1985-1986request_box
479Manuscripts - Ross, David, Falashas: Is Zionism only for White Jews?1980request_box
4710Manuscripts - Santamaria, Ulysses, The Cultural Impact & Social Transformation of the Ethiopian Population in Israel: With Special Emphasis to the Role of Psychological Aspects in Children's Learning and Educationundatedrequest_box
4711 Manuscripts - Santamaria, Ulysses, Ethiopian Jews in Israel: Historical Identity and the Process of Integrationundatedrequest_box
4712Manuscripts - Shelamay, Kay Kaufman, The Falasha Liturgy1978request_box
4713 Manuscripts - Schoenberg, Harris, The Jews of Ethiopia1981 request_box
48 1Manuscripts - Schoenberger, Michele, The Falashas of Ethiopia: An Ethnographic Study 1975request_box
482Manuscripts - Weise, Barry, Ethiopian Jewry: A Community Under Siegeundatedrequest_box
483Manuscripts - Williams, John A., Last Flight from Ambober, Ver. I1980request_box
484Manuscripts - Williams, John A., Last Flight from Ambober, Ver. II 1981request_box
485Manuscripts - Williams, John A., Last Flight from Ambober, Ver. III1983request_box
486Manuscripts - Winston, Diane, The Falashas: A Brief History of a Beleaguered Community1980request_box
487Research Papers- Cohen, Michael Lee, The Jewish Community of China 1973-1976request_box
488Research Papers - Kaplan, Steven, Ethiopian Jews in Ethiopia & Israel 1986request_box
489Research Papers- Kaplan, Steven, The Beta Israel Encounter with Protestant Missionaries, 1860-1907 1987request_box
491Organizations & Events
[See also Oversized Box 65, Folder 6]
492Organizations & Events1986request_box
493Organizations & Events 1987request_box
494Organizations & Events1988request_box
495Organizations & Events 1990-1993request_box
496 Organizations & Events 1994request_box
497 Organizations & Events1995request_box
498Organizations & Events 1996request_box
499Organizations & Events1997request_box
4910Organizations & Events1998request_box
4911Organizations & Events1999request_box
4912Organizations & Events2000-2002request_box
4914 Clippings1929, 1931 request_box
49 15Clippings 1950-1959request_box
4916 Clippings1960-1969 request_box
49 17Clippings 1970-1973request_box
4918 Clippings1974request_box
4920 Clippings1976request_box
4922 Clippings1978request_box
501ClippingsJanuary-April 1979request_box
502ClippingsMay-December 1979request_box
505ClippingsJanuary-April 1982request_box
506ClippingsMay-December 1982request_box
507ClippingsJanuary-April 1983request_box
511ClippingsMay-December 1983request_box
512ClippingsJanuary-October 1984request_box
513 ClippingsNovember-December 1984request_box
514ClippingsJanuary 1985request_box
515ClippingsFebruary 1985request_box
516ClippingsMarch 1985request_box
517ClippingsApril-July 1985request_box
518ClippingsAugust-December 1985request_box
521 ClippingsJanuary-June 1986request_box
522ClippingsJuly-December 1986request_box
523ClippingsJanuary-June 1987request_box
524ClippingsJuly-December 1987request_box
527ClippingsJanuary-July 1990request_box
528ClippingsAugust-December 1990request_box
531ClippingsJanuary-April 1991request_box
532ClippingsMay 1991request_box
533ClippingsJune 1991request_box
534ClippingsJuly 1991request_box
535ClippingsAugust 1991request_box
536ClippingsSeptember 1991request_box
537ClippingsOctober-December 1991request_box
541ClippingsJanuary-March 1992request_box
542ClippingsApril-June 1992request_box
543ClippingsJuly-September 1992request_box
544ClippingsOctober-December 1992request_box
545 ClippingsJanuary-June 1993request_box
546ClippingsJuly-December 1993request_box
551ClippingsJanuary-June 1996request_box
552ClippingsJuly-December 1996request_box
554ClippingsJanuary-June 1998request_box
555ClippingsJuly-December 1998request_box
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Series VI: Ethiopia, undated, 1928-1998

The series is in English.
Boxes 56-57, Oversized Box 65, Folder 6

Research files and clippings are arranged chronologically, while articles and manuscripts are arranged by author.

Scope and Content:

This series contains information Berger collected about Ethiopia, from its ancient period through modern times. Included are research notes, clippings, articles, and manuscripts. The research materials include information on Ethiopia's economy, culture, geography, and human rights issues. The collection contains many clippings regarding both the 1974 revolution that ended Ethiopia's monarchy, and the fall of the Mengistu regime in 1991, events which were of great concern to Berger due to the safety of the Beta Israel. Also included are some travel materials from Berger's two trips to Ethiopia in 1965 and 1975.

For a partial listing of journal articles contained within this Series on Ethiopia, see Appendix F: Ethiopia - Journal Articles

561Researchundated, 1929, 1962-1978 request_box
564Journal Articles (Appendix F)1978request_box
565Journals - "The Politics of Starvation," Carnegie Endowment for Peace1975request_box
566 Manuscripts - Segal, David, Civil/Military Relations in the Ethiopian Revolution1983request_box
567Travel Materialsundated, 1972, 1980 request_box
56 8Clippings 1960-1969request_box
569 Clippings1971request_box
5611 Clippings1973request_box
5613 Clippings1975request_box
[See also Oversized Box 65, Folder 7]
5711 Clippings1987request_box
5713 Clippings1989request_box
5715 Clippings1991request_box
5717 Clippings1994request_box
5719 Clippings1998request_box
Return to the Top of Page

Series VII: Black Jews, undated, [1920]-2000

The series is in English.
Boxes 58-61

Research files, correspondence, and clippings are arranged chronologically, while articles and manuscripts are arranged by author.

Scope and Content:

This series contains the research that Berger conducted on the topic of Black Jews for his 1978 book entitled Black Jews in America. The series consists of research files, correspondence, clippings, articles, and manuscripts. There are also several research topics on which Berger maintained separate subject files. The research files contain book excerpts and Berger's notes from a wide variety of writings about Black Jews. Researchers should be aware that for research files dated prior to the 1960s (when Berger became involved with the topic of Black Jews), dates correspond to when the underlying source document Berger used was created or published, and is not the date of the physical document in the collection. The research files also contain original materials, such as pamphlets and memos, from Black Jewish organizations Berger was involved with, and records of his many conversations with individuals on the subject. There is significant information on the short-lived, multi-racial group "Hatzaad Harishon," which sought fuller integration of Black Jews within the larger Jewish community and which Berger was involved with during the 1960s and early 1970s. The correspondence files include many letters written by Berger challenging others' claims about the number of Black Jews in America, which were often much higher than his own research indicated. Some materials in this series overlap with the information on Ethiopian Jews, since both groups faced the issue of being accepted into the larger Jewish community. The manuscripts and other documents relating to Berger's published work Black Jews in America is in Series II: Writings.

For a partial listing of writings contained within this Series on Black Jews, see Appendix G: Black Jews - Journal Articles and Appendix H: Black Jews - Book Chapters

581Research Filesundatedrequest_box
582 Research Files[1920-1959] request_box
58 3Research Files1960-1969request_box
584Research Files 1970-1973request_box
585 Research Files1974-1976 request_box
58 6Research FilesJanuary-June 1977request_box
587Research Files July-December 1977 request_box
588Research Files January-June 1978request_box
589Research Files July-December 1978request_box
5810Research Files 1979-1981request_box
591 Research Files1982-1986 request_box
59 2Research Files1987-1989request_box
593Research Files 1992request_box
594Subject Files - Black Hebrew Israelites - Researchundated, 1971-1990request_box
595 Subject Files - Black Hebrew Israelites - Clippingsundated, 1970-1980request_box
596 Subject Files - Black Hebrew Israelites - Clippings1981-1992request_box
597Subject Files - West Indies/Surinam - Researchundated, 1954-1980request_box
598 Subject Files- West Indies/Surinam - Clippings1962, 1980request_box
599Subject Files - West Indies/Surinam - Articles1972, 1973request_box
5910 Journal Articles - 1 of 2 (Appendix G)Miscellaneous yearsrequest_box
5911Journal - 2 of 2 (Appendix G)Miscellaneous yearsrequest_box
5912Book Chapters - (Appendix H)request_box
59 13Manuscripts - Dobrin, Arthur, A History of the Negro Jews of America1965request_box
601Manuscripts - Dorman, Jacob, The Rainbow Covenant: Black Jews, Black Power, & Black-Jewish Relations1996request_box
602Manuscripts - Katz, Linda, and Mary Anne Szep, Interracial Jewish Children1966request_box
603Manuscripts - Landing, Jim, Black Judaism: Story of a Movement 1985request_box
604Research Papers - Warmbrand, Martin, The Black Jews of America undatedrequest_box
606Correspondence 1980-1994request_box
607 Clippingsundatedrequest_box
6011 Clippings1970-1972 request_box
60 12Clippings 1973-1976request_box
611 Clippings1977request_box
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Series VIII: Photographs,  undated, 1929-1993

The series is in English.
Box 62

Arranged by subject of material.

Scope and Content:

Contains photographs collected by Berger, arranged into two categories: Personal and Ethiopian Jewry. The Personal category contains photographs primarily of Berger from various noteworthy occasions. The Ethiopian Jewry category is arranged into a group of named people, which contains an index, and of unnamed people. The series also contains a small number of AAEJ photographs.

62 1Personal undated, 1929-1993request_box
622Ethiopian Jews, Named Peopleundated, 1967, 1972-1975, 1981
  View the item 
623Ethiopian Jews, Unnamed, In Ethiopiaundated, 1965-1984
  View the item 
624Ethiopian Jews, Unnamed, In Israelundated, 1973-1990
  View the item 
625AAEJ, Various1976, 1986request_box
627Negatives, Various undatedrequest_box
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Series IX: Artifacts, undated, 1967-1985

The series is in English.
Oversized Boxes 63-64 and MAP Folders 2-5

Arranged by type of material.

Scope and Content:

This series includes posters of various organizations advocating the rescue of Ethiopian Jewry, and calendars from Ethiopia and the Ethiopian Jewish community. It also contains numerous, highly-detailed maps of Africa, and of Ethiopia and the surrounding regions. Of particular note is an enlarged, hand-drawn map of the areas in Ethiopia in which the Beta Israel were concentrated. Posters and other artifacts in the collection that are from the AAEJ can be found in See Oversized Material, Box 65.

Artifacts and Ephemera

631Posters, Ethiopian Jewry Rescue, North American Jewish Students Networkundatedrequest_box
632Posters, Ethiopian Jewry Rescue, Misc undated, 1981, 1985request_box
633Calendars, Ethiopian Jewish1967-1969 request_box
63 4Calendars, Ethiopian1983, 1987, 1989request_box
635Maps, Ethiopia/Kenya undatedrequest_box
641Posters, World Union of Jewish Students, Ethiopian/Soviet Jewry Rescueundated, 1980
  View the item 
642Posters, Ethiopian Jewry Rescue, Misc.undated, 1987
  View the item 
643Maps, Africa, National Defense Agencyrequest_box
644Maps, Africa, Aeronautical (1 of 2)request_box
645 Maps, Africa, Aeronautical (2 of 2)request_box

MAP Folders

MAP1 AAEJ Subject Files, Postersrequest_box
MAP 2Maps - Africa, National Geographic1980request_box
MAP3Maps - Ethiopia and Gonder Regionundated, 1974request_box
MAP4Maps - Africa, Topographical Regions1968-1969, 1978request_box
MAP5Maps - Falasha Concentrations in Ethiopia (Hand-drawn)undated request_box
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Oversized Material,  undated, 1977, 1981-1982

The series is in English.
Box 65

Folders in this box are arranged in order of the underlying series from which they originated.

Scope and Content:

The box contains items from various series in the general collection placed in oversized storage.

651AAEJ Subject Files, American Mizrachi Women, Hand drawn map of Ethiopia 1981-1982request_box
652AAEJ Subject Files, Jacobovici, Simcha1983-1985request_box
653AAEJ Subject Files, Postersundated
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654AAEJ Subject Files, Proposed Layout for Ads1983request_box
655AAEJ Subject Files, Publicity Campaign Layoutsundatedrequest_box
656 Ethiopian Jewry, Organizations and Events, Buttons for Ethiopian Jewryundatedrequest_box
657Ethiopia, Clippings 1977request_box
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